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Flashcards in Para Compre Deck (251):
1

phyla under protozoa

sarcomastigophora
ciliophora
blastocystida
apicomplexa

2

phyla under metazoa

nemahelminthes
platyhelminthes

3

subphylum under sarcomastigophora

sarcodina
mastigophora

4

sarcodina includes

Lobosea (amebas)

5

mastigophora includes

zoomastigophora (flagellates/hemoflagellates)

6

apicomplexa includes

sporozoa

7

classes under nemahelminthes

nematoda
filariae

8

classes under platyhelminthes

trematoda
cestoda

9

the form of a parasite that enters the host

infective stage

10

two organisms of different species living together

symbiosis

11

official units of parasite measurement

microns

12

parasite that cannot survive outside host

obligate parasites

13

insect that transports a parasite from infected host to uninfected host

vector

14

parasite that lives on the outside surface the host

ectoparasite

15

parasite-harboring host that is not affected but can shed the parasite and infect others

carrier

16

destructive process that has characteristic symptoms

disease

17

host responsible for transferring a parasite from one location to another

transport host

18

stools typically required for O&A collection protocol

3

19

used to preserve the morphology of protozoa and prevent further development

fixatives

20

formalin used for helminth eggs and larva

10% formalin

21

formalin used for cysts

5% formalin

22

comprised of a plastic powder that acts as an adhesive for the stool specimen when preparing slides

PVA

23

placing a drop of 0.85% saline on a glass slide and mixing with unfixed stool

direct saline wet prep

24

technique to aggregate parasites into a small volume of the sample

concentration method

25

concentration method includes

formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation procedure
zinc sulfate flotation technique

26

slide that contains a fixed sample that has been allowed to dry and stained

permanent stains

27

the most widely used permanent stain

Wheatley Trichrome

28

advantage of stool screening method

highly sensitive and specific

29

area collected from for enterotest

duodenum

30

NNN medium stands for

Novy-McNeal-Nicolle medium

31

preferred stain for detection of blood parasites

Giemsa

32

fixative to stool ratio

3:1

33

cannot be used for permanent stained slides

formalin

34

preservative that contains mercuric chloride

PVA

35

sample for Naegleria fowleri

CSF

36

sample for Paragonimus westermani

sputum

37

sample for Schistosoma haemotobium

urine

38

sample for Trichomonas vaginalis

vaginal secretions

39

sample for Onchocerca volvolus

skin nips

40

morphology found in formed stool

cyst

41

mononucleated, has centrally located karyosome and ingested RBCs

Entamoeba histolytica troph

42

cyst has chromatoid bars that are rounded at ends

Entamoeba histolytica cyst

43

this is the only known pathogenic intestinal ameba

E. histolytica

44

treatment for histolytica infection

iodoquinol
paromomycin
diloxanide
metronidazole
tinidazole

45

typical structure of E. histolytica troph

single nucleus with small karyosome

46

infective stage of E. hitolytica

cyst

47

considered "small race" E. histolytica

Entamoeba hartmanni

48

is E. hartmanni found worldwide?

yes

49

typical structure in E. coli troph

vacuoles containing bacteria

50

identifyinf structure of E. coli cyst

chromatoid bars with pointed or splintered end
one to eight nucleus

51

recovery of e. coli troph and cyst

stool exam

52

amoeba primarily considered as parasites of pigs and monkeys

Entamoeba polecki

53

blotlike appearance of karyosome

Endolimax nana

54

iodamoeba butschlii cyst typically lacks ________

chromatoid bars

55

only amoeba that ingests WBCs

Entamoeba gingivalis

56

first amoeba recovered from a human specimen

E. gingivalis (1849)

57

amoeba found in mouth and genital tract

E. gingivalis

58

only amoeba with three morphologic forms

Naegleria fowleri

59

forms of N. fowleri

amoeboid troph
flagellate
cysts

60

recovery of N. fowleri

CSF

61

human most often contract N. fowleri by

swimming in contaminated water

62

means "spinelike pseudopods"

acanthapodia

63

recovery of Acanthamoeba spp

CSF

64

infections with acanthamoeba spp. occur in

eyes

65

transformation of a troph into cyst

encystation

66

transformation of cyst to troph

excystation

67

amebic stage with a thick cell wall allowing survival of the orgaism in the external environment

cyst

68

motile class of protozoa equipped with pseudopods

amoeba

69

extension of cytoplasm that aids amoeba in motility

pseudopods

70

motile amebic stage

trophozoite

71

small mass of chromatin located within the nucleus of certain protozoan parasites

karyosome

72

intestinal amebic infection characterized by blood and mucus in stool

amebic dysentery

73

atrial amoeba

Acanthamoeba spp.
Entamoeba gingivalis
Naegleria fowleri

74

amebic dysentery is caused by

E. histolytica

75

amoeba with inclusion mass

E. polecki

76

what procedure possibly shrinks flagellates

permanent smear

77

flagellates move through

flagella

78

flagellates include

Giardia lamblia
Chilomastix mesnili
Dientamoeba fragilis
Trichomonas hominis
Enteromonas hominis
Retortamonas intestinalis
Trichomanas tenax
Trichomonas vaginalis

79

discoverer of Giardia lamblia

Dr. F. Lambl

80

classification of flagellates

Mastigophora > Zoomastigophora

81

the only pathogenic intestinal flagellate

Giardia lamblia

82

defined as anterior portion of the flagella (G. lamblia)

axonemes

83

flagellate with falling leaf motility

G. lamblia

84

pear or teardrop shaped troph

G. lamblia

85

two slightly curved rodlike structure in a lamblia troph that sits on the axonemes posterior to the nuclei

median bodies

86

nourishment entry point for G. amblia troph

sucking discs

87

flagellate that is resistant to water chlorination

G. lamblia cysts

88

collection regimen for G. lamblia diagnosis

multiple stool samples on subsequent days

89

functions of G. lamblia's median bodies

support
energy
metabolism

90

MOT of G. lamblia

ingestion

91

unique feature of C. mesnili troph

spiral groove

92

defined as a rudimentary mouth in a C. mesnili cysts

cytostome

93

shape of C. mesnili cyst

lemon-shaped

94

shape of C. mesnili troph

pear-shaped

95

key features of C. mesnili

lemon-shaped
cytostome present

96

flagellate with no known cyst

Dientamoeba fragilis

97

considered as amoeba-flagellate

D. fragilis

98

stain for nuclear features of D. fragilis

iron hematoxylin

99

location of D. fragilis inside the human body

mucosal crypts of the large intestine

100

how is D. fragilis transmitted

via eggs of helminth parasites

101

treatment for fragilis infection

iodoquinol

102

D. fragilis feature where the troph returns to normal size when wet mounted instead of rupturing

Hakansson phenomenon

103

structure that connects the undulating membrane and troph body

costa

104

flagellate with full-body length undulating membrane

Trichomonas hominis

105

MOT for T. hominis

ingestion

106

T. hominis is transmitted from

contaminated milk

107

sample for T. hominis recovery

stool

108

location of nuclei in Enteromonas hominis cyst when more than one appears

opposite poles or ends

109

motility of E. hominis

jerky

110

cyst that has bird's beak-like structureq

Retortamonas intestinalis

111

traditional technique and specimen of choice for identifying Retortamonas intestinalis

permanently stained stool

112

two thirds of body lengt undulating membrane

Trichomonas tenax

113

specimen of choice for T. tenax

mouth scrapings

114

flagellates that do not survive the digestion process

T. tenax

115

MOT of T. tenax

kissing
contaminated dishes or utensils

116

preferred diagnosis for Trichomonas vaginalis

saline wet prep

117

location of T. vaginalis

mucosal surface of vagina

118

infection site for T. vaginalis in males

prostate gland
urethra

119

T. vaginalis infection in men

persistent urethritis

120

T. vaginalis infection in women

persistent vaginitis

121

treatment for T. vaginalis infection

metronidazole

122

prominent structure in T. vaginalis troph that extends beyond the body used for support

axostyle

123

T. vaginalis has no cyst

True

124

half of body length undulating membrane

Trichomonas vaginalis

125

umbrella term for blepharoplast and parabasal body

kinetoplast

126

hemoflagellate form with single flagellum extending from anterior end

promastigote

127

hemoflagellate with half body length undulating membrane

epimastigote

128

hemoflagellate with whole body length undulating membrane

trypomastigote

129

term for infections by Leishmania genus

Leishmaniasis

130

term for parasitic infection of the blood

parasitemias

131

cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. mexicana

Bay sore
Chiclero ulcer

132

cutaneous infection by L. tropica

Baghdad boils
Oriental sore

133

visceral leishmaniasis by L. donovani

Dum dum fever

134

mucocutaneous leishmaniasis by L. braziliensis

Espundia

135

mucocutaenous leishmaniasis by L. guyanensis

Forest yaws

136

visceral leishmaniasis by L. donovani

Kala azar

137

another name for forest yaws

Pian bois

138

mucocutaneous leishmaniasis n the Peruvian Andes

Uta

139

recovery of L. braziliensis

biopsy of infected ulcer

140

vectors for L. braziliensis

Lutzomyia
Psychodopygus

141

other term for ulcers in oral and nasal mucosa

mucocutaneous

142

diagnostic stage of L. braziliensis

amastigotes

143

treatment for L. braziliensis

antimony compounds

144

chiclero ulcer is most likely found in

South American rainforest region

145

infection by L. braziliensis is

mucocutaneous

146

screening test for L. donovani

Montenegro skin test

147

vectors of L. donovani

Lutzomyia sandfly
Phlebotomus sandfly

148

diagnostic stage of L. donovani

amastigote

149

infection by L. donovani is

visceral

150

term for kidney damage (assoc. with L. donovani)

glomerulonephritis

151

treatment for L. donovani

Ambisome

152

enlargement of the spleen and liver

hepatosplenomegaly

153

characterized by blackening of the skin

kala-azar or black fever

154

diseases by L. donovani

visceral leishmaniasis
kala-azar
dum dum fever

155

vectors for L. mexicana

Lutzomyia

156

culture on _______ of L. mexicana sample shows promastigotes

NNN medium

157

infection by L. mexicana is

cutaneous

158

reservoir host of L. mexicana

forest rodents

159

term for intense itching

pruritis

160

inability of an individual to mount an adequate immune response

anergic

161

treatment for L. mexicana infection

Pentosam

162

recovery of L. mexicana

lesion biopsy material

163

recovery of L. tropica

aspiration of fluid underneath the ulcer bed

164

diagnostic stage of L. tropica

amastigote

165

infections by L. tropica is

cutaneous

166

infections by L. tropica include

oriental sore
Old World Leishmaniasis
Baghdad or Delhi boils

167

vector for L. tropica

Phlebotomus fly

168

treatment for L. tropica

Pentosam

169

term for muscle and joint pain

arthralgias and myalgia

170

term for infections by trapanosoma spp

trypanosomiasis

171

disease found in cattle

nagana

172

nagana is caused by

T. brucei

173

Chaga's disease is caused by

T. cruzi

174

common name for T. brucei gambiense infections

West African sleeping sickness or Gambian trypanosomiasis

175

diagnostic stage of T. brucei gambiense

trypomastigote

176

vectors of T. brucei gambiense

Glossina palpalis
Glossina tachinoides

177

first symptom of Gambian trypanosomiasis

development of painful chancre

178

term for enlargement of lymph nodes

lymphadenopathy

179

term for delayed sensation to pain

Kerandel's sign

180

another term for swelling

edema

181

excessive sleepiness

somnolence

182

symptoms of Gambian trypanosomiasis

chancre
lymphadenopathy
Winterbottom's sign
Kerandel's sign
somnolence
edema
erythematous

183

treatment for Gambian trypanosomiasis

melarsoprol
suramin
pentamidine
eflornithine

184

enlargement of cervical lymph nodes in reference to trypanosomal disease caused by T.b. gambiense

Winterbottom's sign

185

more aggresive counterpart of Gambiantrypanosomiasis

East African or Rhodesian trypanosomiasis

186

common name for T. brucei rhodesiense

East African or Rhodesian trypanosomiasis

187

diagnostic feature of T.b.rhodesiense

presence of IgM

188

vectors of T.b. rhodesiense

Glossina morsitans
Glossina pallidipes

189

diagnostic stage of T.b. rhodesiense

trypomastigote

190

symptoms associated with Chaga's disease

cardiac or gastrointestinal distress

191

common name for infection woth T. cruzi

American trypanosomiasis

192

vector of T. cruzi

reduviid bug

193

other name for reduviid bug

kissing bug

194

initial symptom of CHagas's disease

formation of chagoma

195

unilateral edeme of the eyes

Romana's sign

196

symptoms of chronic Chaga's disease

megacolon
megaesophagus
cardiomegaly

197

treatment for T. cruzi infection

Lampit (nifurtimox)

198

method of diagnosis for Chaga's disease

xenodiagnosis

199

trypanosomiasis considered as a benign infection

T. rangeli

200

where is rangeli commonly found

South and Central America

201

this is the analysis of the isoenzyme patterns of an organism

zymodeme analysis

202

plasmodium stage that is reproduction outside the RBC (or liver cells)

exoerythrocytic cycle

203

phase of plasmodium reproduction inside the RBCs

erythrocytic cycle

204

dormant Plasmodium-infected liver cells

hypnozoites

205

hypnozoites apply only to

P. vivax
P. ovale

206

hypnozoites would lead to

recrudescence

207

plasmodium's male sex gamete

microgametocyte

208

plasmodium's female sex gamete

macrogametocyte

209

male and female gametocytes unite in the mosquito's stomach and form a fetilized cell called

zygote

210

other name for zygote

ookinete

211

zygote matures into

oocyst

212

what is released after the oocyst ruptures

sporozoites

213

stipplings in P. ovale

jame's dots

214

stipplings in P. vivax

schuffner's dots

215

stipplings in P. falciparum

maurer's dots

216

stipplings in P. malariae

ziemann's dots

217

average merozoites in mature schizont of P. ovale

8

218

average merozoites in mature schizont of P. vivax

16

219

average merozoites in mature schizont of P. falciparum

24

220

average merozoites in mature schizont of P. malariae

8

221

appearance of merozoites in schizont of P. malariae

daisyhead

222

RBCs infected with P. ovale are

enlarged

223

RBCs infected with P. vivax

enlarged

224

RBCs infected with P. falciparum

normal

225

RBCs infected with P. malariae

normal

226

periodicity of P. ovale

tertian

227

periodicity of P. vivax

tertian

228

periodicity of P. falciparum

subtertian

229

periodicity of P. malariae

quartan

230

plasmodium with marginal accoles

P. falciparum

231

infective stage of Plasmodium

sporozoites

232

best time to collect blood for Plasmodium

between paroxysm

233

an allergic reaction, a periodic episode characterized by fever, chills, sweats and fatigue

paroxysm

234

other term for accole

applique

235

P. falciparum attack RBCs that are

any

236

P. malariae attacks RBCs that are

old

237

P. vivax attacks RBCs that are

immature

238

incubation period for P. vivax

7 to 10 days

239

morphologic forms best used to distinguish P. vivax from P. ovale

mature schizont

240

accidental hosts of Babesia

human

241

specimen of choice of Babesia recover

blood

242

splenectomy and old age predispose

severe babesiosis

243

treatment of babesiosis

clindamycin + quinine

244

babesia does not exhibit ______-

periodicity

245

vector for B. microti

Ixodes dammini

246

vector for B. divergens

Ixodes ricinus

247

sexual reproduction of babesia species occurs in

tick

248

class of babesia

aconoidasida

249

vector for Plasmodium

anopheles

250

self-limiting infection characterized by gradual onset of headache, chills, sweating and fatigue, no periodicity

B. microti

251

plasmodium troph with band formation

P. malariae