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Flashcards in Parasites 1 Deck (74):
1

Are protozoa intra or extra cellular?

Both

2

How many cells do protozoa have?

One

3

How are most protozoa spread?

Fecal/oral route

4

Which protozoa can be spread by bites?

Malaria
Babesiosis
Chaga's disease

5

Protozoa that enter through the skin?

Leishmaniasis
Nagleria

6

Tissue destruction due to what in Protozoa?

Invasion of the host tissues by the organism, not host responses against the organism.

7

Most important strain of Malaria?

Plasmodium falciparum

8

What is released into blood with bite of mosquito?

Sporozoities

9

Where do sporozoites go?

Liver cells

10

Where do Merozoites bind?

Sialic residues on RBCs

11

How do merozoites detoxify heme?

Form paracrystalline precipitate

12

Which step in Malaria is inhibited by chloroquine?

Detoxification of heme

13

Which HLA confers some immunity to malaria?

B53

14

In malaria hemolysis of infected RBCs leads to what?

Hemoglobinuria (black water fever)
Kidney damage

15

Free hemoglobin results in pigmentation of which cells in particular in Malaria?

Kupfer cell

16

What are some of the severe signs that falciparum can cause?

Anemia
Pulmonary edema
Cerebral symptoms
Death

17

What causes the cerebral involvement in Malaria?

Parasite binds to endothelial cells in brain (schizonts to ICAM-1)

18

What does vivid and oval infect?

Only reticulocytes

19

What does plasmodium malarian infect?

Mature RBCs
Can persist 40 years

20

What happens to the spleen during chronic infection?

Increasingly fibrotic

21

Within RBC merozoites matures into whaT?

Tropozoite

22

Trophozoites in RBC mature into what?

Schizont form and display knobs on surface

23

Falciparum schizont knobs express sequestering that bind what?

ICAM1, thrombospondin receptor and CD46

24

Malarial like disease in US?

Babesiosis

25

What transmits Babesiosis?

Deer ticks

26

Babesosis presentation?

Fever and hemolytic anemia

27

What do Trypanosomiasis cause?

African Sleeping sickness
Chaga's disease

28

What does African Sleeping sickness cause through proliferation of kinetopastid forms in erythrocytes

Fever, lymphadenopathy, Splenomegaly, brain dysfunction, cachexia, and death

29

What transmits African Sleeping?

tsetse fly

30

What is Winterbottom's sign?

Pronounced lymphadenopathy

31

Winter bottom's sign precedes what?

CNS symptoms of African Sleeping Sickness

32

IFN gamma stimulates what in ASS?

Parasite growth

33

What causes tissue destruction in ASS?

Ag-Ab complex deposition and release of lysosomal enzymes form degenerating phagocytes

34

In ASS what forms at site of insect bite?

Large red rubbery chancre (ulcer plus large mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate)

35

Most frequent cause of heart failure in Brazil/Latin America?

Chaga's disease

36

What transmits CD?

Kissing bugs

37

What is found at site of entry for CD?

Chagoma

38

What does CD infect?

Macrophages

39

What does CD penetrate into?

Skeletal muscel, smooth muscel, and cardiac muscle

40

Acute CD mainly affects what?

Heart

41

Chronic CD affects what?

Myocardial cells, nerve cells, lymphocytes

42

4 GI Protozoa?

1) Amebiasis
2) Giardia
3) Cryptosporidosis
4) Balantidiasis

43

Infectious form of Entamoeba does what?

Resists gastric acid

44

What are Entamoeba supposed to look like?

Flask shaped

45

Where is Entamoeba?

Cecum and ascending bowel

46

Most prevalent pathogenic intestinal organism worldwide?

Giardia lamblia

47

How do you clean water of Giardia?

Filtration

48

Giardia associated with what deficiency?

IgA

49

What type of Giardia is infectious?

Dormant cyst

50

Where do trophozoites of Giardia multiply?

Small intestine

51

What causes Giardia diarrhea?

Nutrient malabsorption by blocking mucosal surface or damaging microvilli

52

What does Cryptosporidium do>

Diarrhea in children, severe disease in immunosuppressed

53

How do you get rid of Cryptosporidium?

Filtration

54

Cryptosporidia adhere where?

Apical brush border

55

Invasion and disruption of mucosa cause what in Cryptosporidium?

Malabsorption and secretory diarrhea

56

Cryptospordium infects what?

Macrophages and underlying Peyer's patches

57

Control of Crypto is done by what?

CD4 mediated T-cell immunity

58

Disseminated diseases in immunosuppresed individuals

Crypto and Toxo

59

Toxoplasmosis is what?

Obligate intracellular protozoan

60

What types of cells can Toxo infect?

All

61

How does Toxo bind to host cells?

Laminin receptors

62

Toxo infection controlled by

T-cell mediated immune response

63

Toxo cysts contain what remain dormant for years?

Bradyzoites

64

Toxo worst in which trimester?

1st

65

What vector gives Leishmaniasis?

Sandfly

66

what phagocytoses Leishmaniae?

Macrophages

67

What are Leishmaniar resistant to?

C5-C9 complex

68

3 Forms of Leishmaniasis?

Cutaneous
Mucocutaneous
Visceral

69

How does host response affect Leish?

Cellular immune response results in granulomas, anorexic hosts have widespread disease

70

Which form of Leish gets you black fever?

Visceral

71

Which form of Leish gets you foamy macrophages?

Rare diffuse cutaneous

72

Tissue invaders through water transmission enter through where?

Nasal mucosa

73

Tissue invaders through nasal mucosa alter what?

Sense of taste and smell

74

2 major tissue invaders?

Naegleria
Acanthamoeba