Flashcards in Parasites -> Malaria Deck (27):
What is the type of vector that transmits Malaria?
difference between elimination and eradication?
eradication is for global elimination
can malaria be transmitted from person to person?
what are the 2 main types of parasites that cause malaria?
where are Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax more prevalent
Falciparum --> Subsaharan Africa, PNG, some parts of indonesia and central latin american
Vivax --> south east asia, central south america
what is one of the main problems in controlling malaria?
vaccine not very effective
low socio-economic areas more prevalently affected
increased resistance to anti malarian drugs and pesticides
causes the majority of the severe cases and death
what is the vector for the transmission of the malaria parasite?
during what stage for the parasite life cycle does the individual experience symptoms of the disease?
once infection has occurred the parasite can enter the ---- and remain there for ------/---- days, replicating
what are the main 2 types of malaria that can develop?
Mild Malaria --> flu like disease
Severe Malaria (5%)
severe anaemia, cerebral complications, respiratory distress and metabolic acidosis (lung damaged due to poor perfusion of tissues)
for mild malaria what course of medication is recommended
short course of Artemisinin
for severe malaria what course of medication is recommended
IV Artemisinin and supportive treatment
in the malarian life cycle why are symptoms developed
due to the immune response against the infected RBC
malarian immunity develops after the first episode of malaria T/F
F several episodes needed (pathogen not very immunogenic)
what are the 3 main types of immunity that develop against malaria?
against severe malaria
against any malaria
against malaria in pregnancy
what are the parasite reasons for the slow development of immunity?
multiple antigenic targets
antigenic diversity (major targets show polymorphism)
antigenic variation (gene families allow switching to evade responses)
what are the host factors for the slow development of immunity?
inadequate response (especially in young children)
irrelevant response (antibodies for liver stage)
wrong target (antigens not essential for invasion) or wrong epitope of the right target
what are the main stages that are important to remember the infection of malaria?
what type of immune response is developed against sporozoites?
Antibodies* and T cells
what type of immune response is developed against liver stage?
what type of immune response is developed against merozoites?
what type of immune response is developed against RBC stage?
antibodies* and CD4 T cells (large production of IFN-y¨)
[note RBC no MHC]
the function of the antibodies is to coat the RBC and tag them for phagocytosis (opsonisation)
what is the function of the antibodies produces against the extracellular stages of the pathogen?
inhibiting the pathogen from entering and infecting other cells
what is the vaccine being produced targeting?
the entering of the sporozoites into the liver OR the entering of the merozoite into the RBCs
what is one of the main targets that is being targeted for the development of a vaccine?
Segment of CS protein (major antigen of the sporozoite)