Parasitic infections of the GI and GU tracts Flashcards Preview

Module 2 > Parasitic infections of the GI and GU tracts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parasitic infections of the GI and GU tracts Deck (55):
1

What is a parasite?

organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host

2

How are protozoa classified?

according to their movement

3

What are the 4 classifications of protozoa?

sacromastigophora; apicomplexa; ciliophora and microspora

4

What are hte further divisions of sacromastigophora?

sarcodina and mastigophora

5

How do sarcodina move?

by pseudopodia

6

What characterises sarcomastigophora?

flagellae; pseudopodia or both

7

Give an example of a sarcodina?

entamoeba

8

What is a mastigophora?

move by flagella

9

Give an example of a mastigophora?

giardia

10

What defines an apicomplexa?

no organelle of locomotion

11

Give an example of an apicomplexia?

plasmodium

12

What defines ciliophora?

move by cilia

13

Give an example of ciliophora?

balantidium

14

What defines microspora?

spore-forming

15

Give an example of a microspora?

entercytozoa

16

What are the 2 phyla of metazoa?

nematodes and platyhelminithes

17

What are nematodes?

round worms (tubes)

18

What are the 2 classes of platyhelminthes?

cestodes and trematodes

19

What are platyhelminithes?

flat worms-dorsoventrally flattened

20

What are the differences between cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes)?

cestodes are segmented by have no alimentary canal whereas trematodes are non-segmented with 2 suckers and no head but have an alimentary canal

21

Give an example of a cestode?

taenia

22

Give an example of a nematode?

roudnworm-ascaris

23

Give examples of trematodes?

fasciolopsis; schistosoma

24

What are the RFs for getting GI parasitic infections?

infected water or food; immunosuppression; nutritional deficiency; foreign travel; oro-anal intercourse

25

What are the 4 anatomic locations of GI parasites?

lumen only; mucosal attachment; epithelial cell invasion; mucosal invasion

26

Give an exmaple of a parasite which remins in the lumen only?

ascaris ; entamoeba

27

Give an example of parasites which attach to the mucosa?

giardia lamlia; tapeworm

28

give an exmple of parasites which invade the epithelia?

microsporidia

29

Give an example of a parasite whic hinvades the mucosa?

balantium coli

30

What is the infective dose required for giardia?

very low- 10-25 cysts

31

How do giardia multiply?

by binary fission

32

How do giardia trophozoites attach to the intestines?

attach to villi by ventral sucking disk

33

How does giardia cause diarrhoea?

attachment physically disrupts intestinal absorption

34

What causes giardiasis?

giardia lamblia

35

What causes amoebiasis?

entamoeba histolytica

36

What is the infecitous form of giardia?

cyst form

37

What are teh 3 forms of amoebiasis disease?

carrier; intestinal or extra-intestinal

38

What are the features of intestinal amoebiasis?

abdo pain; colitis- flask shaped ulcers and bloody diarrhoea

39

What are the features of extra-intestinal amoebiasis?

liver; lung and brain abscesses- fever; leukocytosis and rigors

40

Where is cryptosporidiosis found in the intestines?

brush border of the intestinal epithelium

41

How do cryptosporidia replicate?

schizogony- asexual

42

What is the infectious agent in cryptosporidiosis?

thick walled oocyst (sporulated)

43

What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?

watery discharge

44

How does trichomonas replicate?

longitudinal binary fission

45

What is the most common helminithic infection worldwide?

ascariasis

46

What is found in the ascaris eggs infested by humans?

larval worm

47

What happens when the ingested eggs of ascaris are released?

penetrates the duodenal wall; enters the bloodstream, liver, heart and pulmonary cicrulation

48

What is the feature of ascariasis in the lungs?

hypersensitivty penumonitis resembling an asthmatic attack

49

what is the tx for ascariasis?

mebendazole

50

What is the function of preserving faecal specimens in 10% formalin?

preserves parasitic morphology

51

What is used for giardia detection in stoll samples?

ELISA

52

What is saline wet mount examination sued for identification of?

trophozoites; cysts of protozoa; ova/larvae of helminths

53

What is iodine wet mount used for identification of?

protozoal cysts

54

What type of drug is generally used for parasitic infections?

"azole" drugs

55

What drug is used for most protozoa?

metronidazole