What are ticks a major vector of?
And other viruses, bacteria and protozoan
When is Toxoplasmosis must dangerous?
Acute infection in pregnant women
Under what circumstances can Ascaris infection be ruled out?
If a person hasn't been to an endemic area for over 2 years
How do you diagnose giardiasis?
Cysts in faeces
IgA serology in faeces
What type of lifecycle does Echinococcus have?
Where in the body does Schistosoma mature?
In the portal circulation
How do human become infected with Taenia?
Consumption of cysts in uncooked meat
Which tick species is the most important in terms of human disease in Australia?
How do you treat Echinococcus cysts?
What is the name of the new treatment for lice?
What does tick paralysis sometime resemble?
How do you prevent tick infestation?
Body inspection after walking
How do you control amoebiasis?
Clean drinking water
What is the clinical history of amoebic cysts?
Prolonged diarrhoea followed by cyst symptoms
What makes you scratch in lice infestations?
Lice aand moults are irritants
How is schistosomiasis acquired?
Swimming in frest water (cercaria penetrate skin)
How many eggs can a Ascaris lumbricoides female lay per day?
Where does Sarcoptes scabiei prefer to infest?
What are the symptoms of schistosomiasis?
Light infection: dermatitis, asymptomatic
Heavy infection: Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, collateral circulation, portal hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis
Is the most important fluke (trematode) infection?
How is Toxoplasma gondii transmitted?
Ingestion of cyst in water, cat faeces or uncooked meat
How can you diagnose Ascaris infection?
Eggs in faeces
What are some diagnostic techniques for Strongyloides?
Eggs in faeces
What are some disease control strategies for schistosomiasis?
Where does Toxoplasma gondii infect?
Form cysts in tissue
Which worms undergo a tracheal migration?
Where do Ascaris eggs hatch?
In the GIT of host after maturing outside
How is toxoplasmosis diagnosed?
What is the pre-patent period of Enterobius?
Name three species of lice and their site of infestation
Which worm can perform immunological masking to avoid the immune response?
How many eggs can female lice lay per day?
What are some control stategies for Strongyloides?
What disease control techniques are available for Taenia?
Avoid uncooked pork
Vaccination of pigs
What do Echinococcus cyst common occur?
Is lice infestation greater in people with poor hygiene?
What is the name of lice infestation?
What is a paratenic host?
A host in which the parasite can enter, not undergo sexual reproduction but remain infectious
How do you diagnose E. histolytica?
(Imaging for cysts)
What is the treatment for giardiasis?
How is E. histolytica transmitted?
F-O: usually water
Where does Entamoeba histolytica infect in the host?
Can invade and form cysts in the liver or brain
What are two tapeworms?
How does Echinococcus cause disease?
Adult leaves the GIT and encysts in tissue
How does Emtamoeba histolytica travel around the body?
Why is treatment for Taenia with anti-helmintics sometimes bad?
It can stimulate a immune response and lead to epileptic fits
What are the symptoms of giardiasis?
Chronic or acute malabsorption
What is happening to the prevalence of Phthuris pubis?
It is decreasing
Can you do serological testing for giardiasis?
Only IgA in the faeces as Giardia doesn't get into the circulation to cause a systematic immune response
How is Strongyloides transmitted?
Direct penetration of host by larvae (usually feet)
Which helminth doesn't require a second host?
What do you treat amoebiasis with?
Metroniazole + paromomycin
How many eggs does the Strongyloides female produce per day
What are the symptoms of Ascaris infection?
Can cause pneumonitis or intestinal blockage (pancreatitis, cholangitis
Where is Ixodes holocyclus distributed in Australia?
What is a common zoonotic host of Giardia intestinalis in Australia?
Possums - they can contaminate water supplies
What are larval cysts of Echinococcus called?
What is a complication of Strongyloides infection in the immunosuppressed?
Gram negative disease - larval migration take gram negatives with them - cause secondary infection outside GIT, septicaemia
How is Pediculus humanis spread?
Which Taenia species causes neurocystocercosis
What type of parasite is Emtamoeba histolytica?
How to diagnose Taenia?
In which worm infection does autoinfection occur?
Strongyloides (new eggs hatch in GIT before being excreted)
What are diseaes control methods for Echinoccocus?
Prevent infection in dogs
How can Ascaris cause asthma like symptoms?
Tracheal migration through the lungs
How many eggs can Taenia produce per day?
Where does embryonation of A. lumbricoides occur? How long does it take?
What are the two types of paralysis that ticks can cause?
Local or generalised (like Guillain-Barre)
What are three types of roundworms?
Pinworms (Enterobus vermicularis)