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Hugh's MD1 Abdominal > Parasitology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parasitology Deck (69):
1

What are ticks a major vector of?

Rickettsia

And other viruses, bacteria and protozoan

1

When is Toxoplasmosis must dangerous?

Acute infection in pregnant women

Immunosuppressed people

1

Under what circumstances can Ascaris infection be ruled out?

If a person hasn't been to an endemic area for over 2 years

2

How do you diagnose giardiasis?

Cysts in faeces

IgA serology in faeces

2

What type of lifecycle does Echinococcus have?

Predator-prey

3

Where in the body does Schistosoma mature?

In the portal circulation

3

How do human become infected with Taenia?

Consumption of cysts in uncooked meat

4

Which tick species is the most important in terms of human disease in Australia?

Ixodes holocyclus

4

How do you treat Echinococcus cysts?

Surgery

PAIR

Antihelminths

6

What is the name of the new treatment for lice?

Topical ivermectin

7

What does tick paralysis sometime resemble?

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

7

How do you prevent tick infestation?

Protective clothing

Repellent

Body inspection after walking

7

How do you control amoebiasis?

Clean drinking water

Sewage treatment

8

What is the clinical history of amoebic cysts?

Prolonged diarrhoea followed by cyst symptoms

10

What makes you scratch in lice infestations?

Lice aand moults are irritants

11

How is schistosomiasis acquired?

Swimming in frest water (cercaria penetrate skin)

12

How many eggs can a Ascaris lumbricoides female lay per day?

200,000

14

Where does Sarcoptes scabiei prefer to infest?

Fingerwebs

Elbows

Axillae

Genitals

15

What are the symptoms of schistosomiasis?

Light infection: dermatitis, asymptomatic

Heavy infection: Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, collateral circulation, portal hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis

16

Is the most important fluke (trematode) infection?

Schistosoma mansonii

17

How is Toxoplasma gondii transmitted?

Ingestion of cyst in water, cat faeces or uncooked meat

17

How can you diagnose Ascaris infection?

Eggs in faeces

18

What are some diagnostic techniques for Strongyloides?

Serology

Eggs in faeces

18

What are some disease control strategies for schistosomiasis?

Sewage treatment

Kill snails

Treat carriers

19

Where does Toxoplasma gondii infect?

Intracellularly

Form cysts in tissue

19

Which worms undergo a tracheal migration?

Ascaris

Strongyloides

20

Where do Ascaris eggs hatch?

In the GIT of host after maturing outside

21

How is toxoplasmosis diagnosed?

Serology

21

What is the pre-patent period of Enterobius?

4-6 weeks

22

Name three species of lice and their site of infestation

Pediculus capitis 

Pediculus humanis

Phthuris pubis

23

Which worm can perform immunological masking to avoid the immune response?

Schistosoma

24

How many eggs can female lice lay per day?

3-9

24

What are some control stategies for Strongyloides?

Sewage treatment

Wear shoes

25

What disease control techniques are available for Taenia?

Treat carriers

Avoid uncooked pork

Sewage disposal

Hygiene

Vaccination of pigs

 

26

What do Echinococcus cyst common occur?

Lung

Liver

29

Is lice infestation greater in people with poor hygiene?

No

31

What is the name of lice infestation?

Pediculosis

33

What is a paratenic host?

A host in which the parasite can enter, not undergo sexual reproduction but remain infectious

35

How do you diagnose E. histolytica?

Serology

Faecal cysts

(Imaging for cysts)

36

What is the treatment for giardiasis?

Tinidazole

38

How is E. histolytica transmitted?

F-O: usually water

39

Where does Entamoeba histolytica infect in the host?

Colon

Can invade and form cysts in the liver or brain

39

What are two tapeworms?

Taenia

Echinococcus

39

How does Echinococcus cause disease?

Adult leaves the GIT and encysts in tissue

40

How does Emtamoeba histolytica travel around the body?

Haematogenous spread

40

Why is treatment for Taenia with anti-helmintics sometimes bad?

It can stimulate a immune response and lead to epileptic fits

41

What are the symptoms of giardiasis?

Diarrhoea

Chronic or acute malabsorption

42

What is happening to the prevalence of Phthuris pubis?

It is decreasing

43

Can you do serological testing for giardiasis?

Only IgA in the faeces as Giardia doesn't get into the circulation to cause a systematic immune response

45

How is Strongyloides transmitted?

Direct penetration of host by larvae (usually feet)

46

Which helminth doesn't require a second host?

Strongyloides

47

What do you treat amoebiasis with?

Metroniazole + paromomycin

Abscess drainage

 

48

How many eggs does the Strongyloides female produce per day

50

50

What are the symptoms of Ascaris infection?

Asymptomatic mainly

Can cause pneumonitis or intestinal blockage (pancreatitis, cholangitis

51

Where is Ixodes holocyclus distributed in Australia?

Eastern coast

53

What is a common zoonotic host of Giardia intestinalis in Australia?

Possums - they can contaminate water supplies

54

What are larval cysts of Echinococcus called?

Hydatid cysts

55

What is a complication of Strongyloides infection in the immunosuppressed?

Gram negative disease - larval migration take gram negatives with them - cause secondary infection outside GIT, septicaemia

56

How is Pediculus humanis spread?

On clothing

57

Which Taenia species causes neurocystocercosis 

solium

59

What type of parasite is Emtamoeba histolytica?

Protozoan, Amoeba

60

How to diagnose Taenia?

Serology

Imaging

62

In which worm infection does autoinfection occur?

Enterobius 

Strongyloides (new eggs hatch in GIT before being excreted)

64

What are diseaes control methods for Echinoccocus?

Hygiene

Vaccine livestock

Prevent infection in dogs

65

How can Ascaris cause asthma like symptoms?

Tracheal migration through the lungs

66

How many eggs can Taenia produce per day?

300,000

67

Where does embryonation of A. lumbricoides occur? How long does it take?

In soil

2-4 weeks

68

What are the two types of paralysis that ticks can cause?

Local or generalised (like Guillain-Barre)

69

What are three types of roundworms?

Pinworms (Enterobus vermicularis)

Strongyloides sterceralis

Ascaris lumbricoides