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If something such as a boat beaches, or if it is beached, it is pulled or forced out of the water and onto land.
The boat beached on a mud flat...
The coast of southern Chile has become a grave for 337 sei (SAY) whales that were found beached in what scientists say is one of the biggest whale strandings ever recorded.


[ tækˈsɑ:nəmi ]

Taxonomy is the process of naming and classifying things such as animals and plants into groups within a larger system, according to their similarities and differences.
Taxonomy is very largely subjective and intuitive.



If you are stranded, you are prevented from leaving a place, for example because of bad weather.
The climbers had been stranded by a storm...
The coast of southern Chile has become a grave for 337 sei (SAY) whales that were found beached in what scientists say is one of the biggest whale strandings ever recorded.


[ ˌriɪnˈstet ]

To reinstate a law, facility, or practice means to start having it again.
Cuba has reinstated restrictions on doctors leaving the island to work in the United States



A faulty piece of equipment has something wrong with it and is not working properly.
The money will be used to repair faulty equipment.
Indonesian officials say faulty equipment was a "major factor" in the crash of an AirAsia Airbus A320-200 last December.



on the plane)
An aeroplane's rudder is a vertical piece of metal at the back which is used to make the plane turn to the right or to the left.
on the boat)
A rudder is a device for steering a boat. It consists of a vertical piece of wood or metal at the back of the boat.



An overpass is a structure which carries one road over the top of another one.


[ ˈnɛɡlɪdʒəns ]

If someone is guilty of negligence, they have failed to do something which they ought to do.
Prosecutors have charged Color Play Asia owner - Lu Hong-ji - with negligence leading to death and injury.
The accident was caused by negligence on the part of the driver.



A fatality is a death caused by an accident or by violence.
a death resulting from an accident or a disaster
a decrease in the number of automobile fatalities
The last figure includes 10 newly confirmed fatalities.



If you sustain something such as a defeat, loss, or injury, it happens to you.
If you sustain something, you continue it or maintain it for a period of time.
Families of some the 15 people who have died of injuries sustained in the June Formosa Fun Coast water park fire are calling for stiff sentences for the organizers of the event.


laughing stock

the verdict has turned Taiwan into a global laughing stock and gives people the impression that Taiwan is a paradise for substandard food products



Arousal is a state in which you feel excited or very alert, for example as a result of fear, stress, or anger.
Thinking angry thoughts can provoke strong physiological arousal.


[ ˈbaʊəl ]

肠; 内部; 同情心,怜悯心
In an extraordinary number of cases, people who are being fired upon void their bowels because at the heightened level of threat represented by a heart rate of 175 and above, the body considers that kind of physiological control a nonessential activity.


the bowels of

You can refer to the parts deep inside something such as the earth, a building, or a machine as the bowels of that thing.



The impeachment of a senior official is the process of charging them with a crime which makes them unfit for office.
Impeachment proceedings were opened Wednesday against Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff by the speaker of the lower house of Congress.



Slander is an untrue spoken statement about someone which is intended to damage their reputation.
Russia has no right to "slander" Turkey with such claims.
The K-M-T's vice presidential candidate has filed a lawsuit against a D-P-P lawmaker for slander.



You can use seasoned to describe a person who has a lot of experience of something. For example, a seasoned traveller is a person who has travelled a lot.
a seasoned writing teacher walked into my office... She told me that she had a student in her class whose writing
looked “different” from other students she was used to working with.



tolerant, not strict..
“I suppose I could be more lenient,” she explained. “But you know, his biology teacher isn’t going to be as forgiving.”
“Are you saying that you are failing this student because he may fail a biology class in the future?”
“Well, I don’t know,” she mumbled. “If I didn’t fail the student, what would faculty from other departments think?”



Someone who is conscientious is very careful to do their work properly.
We are generally very conscientious about our work...
This essay is my attempt to address this important question that many conscientious WPAs and writing teachers are facing.



The alignment of something is its position in relation to something else or to its correct position.



If you stipulate a condition or stipulate that something must be done, you say clearly that it must be done.
It would seem like a no-brainer: The intended outcomes defines what students are supposed to learn in the course or the program; instructional processes provide
knowledge, skills, strategies and awareness that are necessary for students to reach the intended outcomes; instructional assessment measures whether students have achieved the kind and degree of learning stipulated by the outcomes.



I knew this would be a no-brainer for you.


[ ˈtɛnɪt ]

The tenets of a theory or belief are the main principles on which it is based.
The term instructional alignment “represents a well-established phenomenon in the history of instructional design”, and its basic tenets have been widely accepted in the field of rhetoric and composition as well.


[ ˈækləmeɪt ]

get used to a certain climate;
I help them acclimate to living in the U.S.
They never acclimatized in Egypt.



If you say that an activity, process, or series of events culminates in or with a particular event, you mean that event happens at the end of it.
They had an argument, which culminated in Tom getting drunk...
The celebration of the centenary will culminate with a dinner on November 20.


[ pəˈrɛniəl ]

You use perennial to describe situations or states that keep occurring or which seem to exist all the time; used especially to describe problems or difficulties.
the perennial dilemma between getting on at work and fulfilling family commitments
I wonder at her perennial youthfulness.
New Year's "trend lists" will start filling up our feeds pretty soon with posts like "Top five ways to leverage native ads" or the perennial list about "What's hot in mobile."



supplement with leverage;
" "leverage the money that is already available" "
New Year's "trend lists" will start filling up our feeds pretty soon with posts like "Top five ways to leverage native ads"
Just be careful how you leverage the information.
But they are hoping to leverage peer pressure.


[ kəˈnʌndrəm ]

A conundrum is a problem or puzzle which is difficult or impossible to solve.
Conquering the content marketing fragmentation conundrum with new platforms that let marketers manage this function as a strategy and a tactic (like a multi-level chess game) to streamline the process of content planning, content syndication and engagement.



When newspaper articles or television programmes are syndicated, they are sold to several different newspapers or television stations, who then publish the articles or broadcast the programmes.



The show was ready for syndication in early 1987...
该节目在 1987 年初已可以在各地方电视台播放。
All together, Columbia has 23 sitcoms in syndication.
哥伦比亚广播公司一共有 23 部情景喜剧在非联网电视台市场播放。



a cultural unit (an idea or value or pattern of behavior) that is passed from one generation to another by nongenetic means (as by imitation);
Meme is the supposition presented by Dawkins, a Neo - Darwinist, to explain the evolution law of human beings.



A sentiment that people have is an attitude which is based on their thoughts and feelings.
Public sentiment rapidly turned anti-American...
He's found growing sentiment for military action.
..nationalist sentiments that threaten to split the country.


have a preoccupation with

If you have a preoccupation with something or someone, you keep thinking about them because they are important to you.


[ ˈpraɪməsi ]

The primacy of something is the fact that it is the most important or most powerful thing in a particular situation.
a belief in the primacy of the family


[ ɒ'stensəblɪ ]

Ostensible is used to describe something that seems to be true or is officially stated to be true, but about which you or other people have doubts.
He did it ostensibly for love, but really for money.



In some countries, if you matriculate, you register formally as a student at a university, or you satisfy the academic requirements necessary for registration for a course.



If something wanes, it becomes gradually weaker or less, often so that it eventually disappears.
The moon was waning, and each day it rose later.
He was nominally Deputy Prime Minister, certainly, but his influence was clearly on the wane.



If you chastise someone, you speak to them angrily or punish them for something wrong that they have done.
A boy chastised himself for a ditched pitch but was quickly soothed by his partner’s “That’s OK!”


[ dɪˈmaɪz ]

he demise of something or someone is their end or death.



The score of a film, play, or similar production is the music which is written or used for it.
Best Original Score, Motion Picture
The dance is accompanied by an original score by Henry Torgue.



A bombshell is a sudden piece of bad or unexpected news.
His resignation after thirteen years is a political bombshell...



If you snatch an opportunity, you take it quickly. If you snatch something to eat or a rest, you have it quickly in between doing other things.
I snatched a glance at the mirror...
You can even snatch a few hours off...



The stature of a person is the importance and reputation that they have.
Who can deny his stature as the world's greatest cellist?...



fair and reasonable; treating everyone in an equal way
an equitable distribution of resources



pleasant, friendly and easy to talk to
He greeted everyone in the same relaxed and affable manner.



a person who thinks things should be done in the traditional way and who has strong opinions on what is correct in language, art, etc.
Purists may not approve of the changes made to the text of the play in this production.



to get great pleasure from something; to want very much to do or have something
relish something: to relish a fight/challenge/debate
to relish the idea/thought of something
I don't relish the prospect of getting up early tomorrow.
relish (somebody/something) doing something: Nobody relishes cleaning the oven.



[countable + singular or plural verb] a small group of people who are specially chosen and trained for a particular purpose
a cadre of scientific experts
[countable] a member of this kind of group



1.(often disapproving) (of a person or their moods) changing easily from one mood to another
a highly volatile personality
2.(of a situation) likely to change suddenly; easily becoming dangerous
(synonym unstable)
a highly volatile situation from which riots might develop
a volatile exchange rate
3.(specialist) (of a substance) that changes easily into a gas
Petrol is a volatile substance.



an event that may or may not happen
(synonym possibility)
We must consider all possible contingencies.
to make contingency plans (= plans for what to do if a particular event happens or does not happen)
a contingency fund (= to pay for something that might happen in the future)



1.[countable, usually plural] the particular method you use to achieve something
They tried all kinds of tactics to get us to go.
This was just the latest in a series of delaying tactics.
The manager discussed tactics with his team.
Confrontation is not always the best tactic.
It's time to try a change of tactic.
They used strong-arm (= aggressive or violent) tactics.

2.tactics [plural] the art of moving soldiers and military equipment around during a battle or war in order to use them in the most effective way



always wanting more of something; not able to be satisfied
an insatiable appetite/curiosity/thirst
There seems to be an insatiable demand for more powerful computers.
There’s an apparently insatiable demand for this kind of programme.
The public seems to have an insatiable appetite for celebrity news.



1.(mathematics) in a way that is connected with or shown by an exponent
These time lags are exponentially distributed.
2.(formal) in a way that becomes faster and faster
to increase exponentially


modus operandi
/ˌmoʊdəs ˌɑːpəˈrændiː/

a particular method of working
The police gave a full description of the thief’s modus operandi.



1.intended to be amusing or easily enjoyable rather than too serious
a light-hearted speech
2.cheerful and without problems
She felt light-hearted and optimistic.



outcry (at/over/against something) a reaction of anger or strong protest shown by people in public
an outcry over the proposed change
The new tax provoked a public outcry.
There was outcry at the judge's statement.
related entries: Protest
Tinghsin was ruled to be not guilty in the tainted oil case in their first hearing - causing public outcry.



[often passive] adulterate something (with something) to make food or drink less pure by adding another substance to it
(synonym contaminate)
The water supply had been adulterated with chemicals from the soil.
It was discovered that the company had used and produced adulterated oils after a farmer collected evidence and brought it to prosecutors.



1.[intransitive] (+ adv./prep.) to appear as a large shape that is not clear, especially in a frightening or threatening way
A dark shape loomed up ahead of us.
2.[intransitive] to appear important or threatening and likely to happen soon
There was a crisis looming.
The opposition has also warned of looming food shortages for Venezuelans, saying the people are just a few weeks away from a very serious problem in terms of food.



central; very important; connected with or providing a focus.
The Student Liaison Officer acts as a focal point for student political activity.
The focal symbol of sovereignty is, of course, the crown.



to excuse a judge, lawyer, or member of a jury from a case in court because they may not be able to act fairly
The judge recused himself from the case because he knew a member of the family.
she notes that committee members typically recuse themselves from cases they were previously involved in.



1) An exponent of an idea, theory, or plan is a person who supports and explains it, and who tries to persuade other people that it is a good idea.
...a leading exponent of test-tube baby techniques.
2) An exponent of a particular skill or activity is a person who is good at it.
...the great exponent of expressionist dance, Kurt Jooss.



state in which the condition of life is extremely bad as from deprivation or oppression or terror



If you emulate something or someone, you imitate them because you admire them a great deal.
Sons are traditionally expected to emulate their fathers.



The blurb about a new book, film, or exhibition is information about it that is written in order to attract people's interest.



IMO=in my opinion在我看來
IMHO=in my humble opinoin 恕我直言



A nexus is a connection or series of connections within a particular situation or system.
The Prayer Book has provided a flexible enough nexus of beliefs to hold together the different church parties.



1) If you plead with someone to do something, you ask them in an intense, emotional way to do it.
He was kneeling on the floor pleading for mercy...

2) When someone charged with a crime pleads guilty or not guilty in a court of law, they officially state that they are guilty or not guilty of the crime.
Morris had pleaded guilty to robbery.



When someone makes a pledge, they make a serious promise that they will do something.
The meeting ended with a pledge to step up cooperation between the six states of the region.
Mr. Gates has pledged to give away at least 95 percent of his wealth.



If Facebook shares continue to appreciate, the value of the gift could be much higher than the current estimate of $45 billion.



Mr. Zuckerberg has referred to Mr. Gates as one of his childhood heroes for his zeal in building Microsoft into a colossus in the technology industry.
If you describe someone or something as a colossus, you think that they are extremely important and great in ability or size.



Zeal is great enthusiasm, especially in connection with work, religion, or politics.
Mr. Zuckerberg has referred to Mr. Gates as one of his childhood heroes for his zeal in building Microsoft into a colossus in the technology industry.



An accord between countries or groups of people is a formal agreement, for example to end a war.
The announcement coincided with a Paris summit meeting intended to forge a global accord to cut planet-warming emissions.



Securities are stocks, shares, bonds, or other certificates that you buy in order to earn regular interest from them or to sell them later for a profit.
In a securities filing, Facebook said Mr. Zuckerberg planned “to sell or gift no more than $1 billion of Facebook stock each year for the next three years.” He intends to retain his majority voting position in the company’s stock for the foreseeable future.



teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions; "inculcate values into the young generation"
To address these new imperatives, education systems around the world are exploring ways to integrate 21st century skills into different curriculum areas and also to help teachers develop different pedagogies and learning environments that will help to inculcate these skills.



gradually but firmly establish (an idea or attitude, especially a desirable one) in a person's mind.



plural form of index.
list in an index

To implement this curriculum, Melbourne educators are helping to develop an online assessment platform that will include indices of creativity and critical thinking skills and are experimenting with self- assessment and peer assessment tools as part of their approach.



forming an arch over something.
=comprehensive; all-embracing.
Shanghai does not have an overarching framework for measuring 21st century skills but is using PISA-type tests of problem-solving as a way to shift schools in the direction of modern skills and pedagogy.



The RAND paper and the discussion among the cities underscored the challenges in developing and using assessments of 21st century skills and competencies.



a large number of people or things.
Clearly, there are a host of issues to resolve but cities around the world are seeking meaningful assessments.



a severe flood.
the biblical Flood (recorded in Genesis 6–8).
=flood, torrent, spate
U.S. INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION face many challenges at the beginning of the twenty-first century including the tasks of remaining intellectually and culturally viable in a rapidly changing world, preparing students to vie competitively in the global marketplace, and staying abreast of the electronic deluge of information and globalized knowledge.



think about and begin to deal with (an issue or problem).
=attend to/ apply oneself to/ tackle/ see to/ deal with confront/ come to /grips with /get down to /turn one's hand to /take in hand /undertake /concentrate on/ focus on/ devote oneself to

A new doctoral research study has been undertaken to address these key questions through the collection and analysis of data on the identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization in higher education.



an instrument measuring atmospheric pressure, used especially in forecasting the weather and determining altitude.
something that reflects changes in circumstances or opinions.



engage in a close fight or struggle without weapons; wrestle.
+seize hold of (someone).
=seize /grab /catch /catch hold of /take hold of /grasp/

+struggle with or work hard to deal with or overcome (a difficulty or challenge).
=tackle/ confront /face /deal with /cope with /come to grips with /apply oneself to /devote oneself to
Grappling with another language challenges how one
perceives, conceptualizes, and expresses oneself; and in the process, it opens the possibility of developing alternative communication strategies on someone else's terms.