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Flashcards in part 6 Deck (43):
1

Once a sperm head fuses with the plasma membrane of an ova, what is triggered?

second meiotic division in the oocyte is triggered

2

Formation of a new oorganism is called.... what ?

Zygote

3

Following fetilztion, the zygote begins the process of becoming a multicellular organism. After the zygote divides once and reaches the 2 cell stage, a series of mitotic visions called..... results in an increase in cell number, but not an increase in the overall size of the structure.

Cleavage

4

efore the 8th stage, cells are not tightly bund together, but after the third cleavage division, the cells become tightly compared into a ball. The process by which connect between cells is increases into a ball. The process by which contact between cells is increases to the maximum is called ....

compaction

5

Continues to divide
The zona pellucida begins to degenerate
Fluid-filled cavity begins forming, called ........

Blastocyst cavity

6

The blastycast has two distincit componets...what are they?

Trophoblast and embryoblast

7

Outer ring of cells surrounding the blastocyst cavity
Will form chorion, an extra-embryonic membrane

Tropbhoblast

8

Inner cell mass
Will form the embryo proper
Cells are pluripotent

Embryoblast

9

Which means they have.the power to differnate unto any cell or tissue type in the body

plurpoent cells

10

morula becomes what?

Blastocyst

11

Around day post-ovulation, uterus is ready for implantation

7 days

12

Process where the blastocyst burrows into and embeds within the endometrium

implnantiaion

13

layer release enzymes to destroy underlying tissue which release nutrients for blastocysts

triphoboloast

14

Trophoblast cells split into two populations

cytroblast and synchritophblast

15

the inner layer of trophoblast cells

cytrooblast

16

By day ... post-ovulation, the blastocyst has completely burrowed into the endometrium

dy 9

17

Uterine glands have released their materials into the .......layer

syncytiotrophoblast layer

18

syncytiotrophoblast layer produce

Hcg

19

also called pregnancy

gestation

20

about how many weeks from conception

38 weeks

21

Organ of exchange between maternal and fetal blood

placneta

22

fetal side form the

chorin

23

serve as the boundary between the maternal blood and fetal blood

Chorionic villi

24

Embryo is attached to placenta via the....

via the umbilicus

25

The syncytiotrophoblast is reposbibile for producing a hormone called.......singlans that corpus lutes that fetilzzaton and impaction has occurred. Thus, the corpus letup does not denigrate but rather persalisis for another 3 months, producing large amounts of ......and ....... that thicken and maintain the uterine lining.

Human chorioninic gonadotorpion.; producing large amounts of progetstone and estrogen that thicken and maintain the uterine lining.

26

Suppress gonadotropin production & secretion

progestrone

27

name the three hormones of pregnancy

HCG, progestrine, and estrogen

28

Produced by CL and placenta
Promotes angiogenesis

Relaxin

29

Produced by placenta
Plays a role in length of pregnancy and timing of childbirth

CRH

30

Produced by placenta
Similar to TSH
Increases metabolic rate

HCt

31

Affects metabolism
Favors fat metabolism for mother, leaving glucose for the fetus
Inhibits the effects of insulin

Human plancetal lactogen

32

What are some of the physical changes in the body of gestation

Uterine enlargement
Breasts enlarge and develop ability to produce milk
Nutritional requirements increase
Weight gain
Volume of blood increases 30%
Respiratory activity increases by about 20%
Urinary output increases
Kidneys excrete additional wastes from fetus

33

Dilation of .... to accommodate passage of fetus from uterus through vagina and to the outside

cervical canal

34

there are three stages of labor.. what are they

ceervical dilaion, explusion, and placental

35

which is the longest stage

dilation stage

36

in the dilation stage.. in the first pregnancy ... how long can it last

Lasts from several hours to as long as 24 hours in a first pregnancy

37

ususally this stage last aboutUsually lasts 30 to 90 minute

explusion stage

38

uterine contractions help push the baby out of the vagina

explusion stage

39

reffered to as after birth

planetal stage

40

Second series of uterine contractions separates placenta from uterine wall

placnetal stage

41

Smaller unit of the lobes is the lobules that contain small ..... which produce milk during lactation

alveloi

42

Alveoli converge into ..........ducts to form .................. where milk will accumulate before exiting through openings in the nipple

lactiferous ducts; sinuses .

43

Elevated placental estrogen and progesterone promote development of ducts and alveoli in mammary gland

gestation