Part 6: Antimicrobial Drugs and Resistance Flashcards Preview

MBIO1010 > Part 6: Antimicrobial Drugs and Resistance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Part 6: Antimicrobial Drugs and Resistance Deck (57):
1

Antimicrobial drugs

Compounds that kill or control the growth of microorganisms in the host

2

Antimicrobial drugs

Compounds that kill or control the growth of microorganisms in the host

3

What kind of toxicity does antimicrobial drugs have?

Selective toxicity

4

Categories of antimicrobial drugs

Synthetic and natural

5

Growth factor analogs

Structurally similar to growth factors but do not function in the cells - analogs similar to vitamins, amino acids, and other compounds

6

Sulfa drugs were discovered by and when?

Gerhard Domagk in the 1930s

7

Sulfa drugs

Inhibit growth of bacteria by inhibiting folic acid synthesis and thus nucleic acid synthesis

8

Quinolones

Inhibit DNA gyrase, prevent DNA supercoiling

9

Quinolones are active against

Both gram-negative and gram-positve bacteria

10

What percentage of antibiotics are clinically useful?

Less than 1%

11

Beta-lactam antibiotics

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors

12

Beta-lactam antibiotics

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors

13

What kind of toxicity does antimicrobial drugs have?

Selective toxicity

14

Categories of antimicrobial drugs

Synthetic and natural

15

Growth factor analogs

Structurally similar to growth factors but do not function in the cells - analogs similar to vitamins, amino acids, and other compounds

16

Sulfa drugs were discovered by

Gerhard Domagk in the 1930s

17

Sulfa drugs

Inhibit growth of bacteria by inhibiting folic acid synthesis and thus nucleic acid synthesis

18

Quinolones

Inhibit DNA gyrase, prevent DNA supercoiling

19

Quinolones are active against

Both gram-negative and gram-positve bacteria

20

Antibiotics are produced by

Bacteria and fungi

21

What percentage of antibiotics are clinically useful?

less than 1%

22

Beta-lactam antibiotics

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors

23

What comprises over 50% of antibiotics used around the world?

Beta-lactam antibiotics

24

Who discovered penicillin?

Alexander Fleming

25

What do penicillins target?

cell wall (peptidoglycan synthesis) or transpeptidation

26

What are examples of a beta-lactam antibiotic?

Penicillin

27

What is penicillin effective against?

Gram-positive
Some synthetic forms active against gram-negative

28

Cephalosporins are made of?

Fungus

29

What do cephalosporins target?

Cell wall synthesis

30

What is more broad spectrum: penicillin or cephalosporin?

Cephalosporin

31

Cephalosporins are resistant against?

Beta-lactamases

32

Cephalosporins are used to treat

Gonorrhea

33

Aminoglycosides are bonded by

Glycosidic linkages

34

Examples of aminoglycosides ar

Streptomycins, kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamycin

35

What do aminoglycosides target?

30S subunit of ribosome

36

Why aren't aminoglycosides commonly used?

They lack selective toxicity

37

What are the antibiotics from bacteria?

Aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, daptomycin, cyclic lipopeptide, and platensimycin

38

Macrolide structure

Lactone rings bonded to sugars

39

Example of macrolide

Erythromycin (Streptomyces erythreus)

40

Macrolides have what kind of spectrum

Broad

41

What do macrolides target?

50S subunit of ribosome

42

Mechanism of macrolides

Inhibition of protein synthesis
Preferential translation of some proteins

43

Tetracyclines are produced by

Several species of Streptomyces

44

What kind of spectrum do tetracyclines have?

Broad spectrum

45

What kind of drug are tetracyclines?

Natural and semisynthetic

46

What do tetracyclines inhibit?

30S subunit of ribosome

47

What are the most widely used antibiotics?

Tetracyclines and penicillin

48

What antibiotic is veterinary?

Tetracyclines

49

What antibiotic is highly resistant?

Tetracyclines

50

What are the novel antibiotics?

Daptomycin, cyclic lipopeptide and platensimycin

51

What produces daptomycin?

Streptomyces

52

What is cyclic lipopeptide active against?

Gram-positive

53

How do daptomycin and cyclic lipopeptide work?

They form pores in the cellular membrane that leads to depolarization

54

How does platensimycin work?

Fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor - no host toxicity

55

What antibiotic target MRSA and VRE?

Platensimycin

56

What percent of antibiotics are used in agricultural practices?

80%

57

Mechanisms of resistance for microorganisms

Reduced permeability
Inactivation of antibiotic
Alternation of target
Development of resistant biochemical pathway
Efflux