PART 8. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Flashcards Preview

Developmental Psychology > PART 8. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD > Flashcards

Flashcards in PART 8. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Deck (84)
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1

Sense of self; a cognitive construction of evaluative mental pictures of one's abilities and traits.

Self-concept

2

True or False. Self-concept does not have a social aspect.

False. There is, kids include their growing understanding of how others see them.

3

A cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself. This changes between 5 and 7 years old.

self-definition

4

3 Steps in age 5 to7 Shift based on Neo-Piagetian Analysis

1. single representations (4 years old)
2. representational mappings (5 to 6 years old)
3. representational systems (in middle childhood)

5

The first stage in self-definition wherein children describe themselves as individual, unconnected characteristics, and in all-or-nothing terms.

single representations (4 years old)

6

The second stage in self-definition wherein children make logical connections between aspects of self but still sees characteristics in all-or-nothing terms.

representational mappings (5 to 6 years old)

7

The third stage in self-definition wherein children start to integrate specific features of the self into a general, multidimensional concept.

representational systems (in middle childhood)

8

The judgement of a person makes about his or her self-worth.

self-esteem

9

True or False. By the end of age 3, individual differences in understanding conflicting emotions are evident.

False. By age 3

10

True or False. By the end of age 3, emotions directed towards self develop.

True

11

True or False. When self-esteem is contingent on success, they view failure as an indictment of their worth and may feel helpless to do better.

True

12

True or False. When kids are high in self-esteem, they are generally motivated to achieve.

True

13

This is the 3rd stage in Erikson's theory, when kids balance the urge to pursue goals with reservation about doing so.

initiative vs guilt (3 to 5 yrs old)

14

Refers to the awareness developed in early childhood that one is male or female.

gender identity

15

It pertains to psychological or behavioral differences between males and females.

gender differences

16

This is supported by the concept "78% of gender differences are small to negligible."

gender similarities hypothesis

17

Aspects of Gender Identity

1. gender roles
2. gender typing
3. gender stereotypes

18

These are behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex; differs from males and females.

gender roles

19

A socialization process whereby children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.

gender typing

20

These are preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior.

gender stereotypes

21

5 Perspectives on Gender Development

1. Biological
2. Evolutionary
3. Psychoanalytic
4. Cognitive
5. Social learning

22

Theory on gender development that believes many or most behavioral differences between sexes can be traced to biological differences.

Biological Approach

23

Theory on gender development that kids develop gender roles in preparation for adult mating and reproductive behavior.

Evolutionary Approach

24

Theory on gender development that believes gender identity occurs when the child identifies with same-sex parent.

Psychoanalytic Approach

25

A gender development theory that believes once a child learns their sex, they sort information about behavior by gender and acts accordingly.

Cognitive Approach; Cognitive development theory

26

A gender development theory that believes the child mentally combines observations of gendered behavior and creates own behavioral variations.

Social learning approach; Social cognitive theory

27

A gender development theory that believes a kid organizes information about what is considered appropriate for a boy or a girl on the based on culture.

Gender-schema theory

28

Who theorized Evolutionary Approach?

Charles Darwin

29

Who theorized Psychoanalytic Approach?

Sigmund Freud

30

Who theorized Cognitive Approach?

Lawrence Kohlberg