Flashcards in PART 8. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Deck (84)
Sense of self; a cognitive construction of evaluative mental pictures of one's abilities and traits.
True or False. Self-concept does not have a social aspect.
False. There is, kids include their growing understanding of how others see them.
A cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself. This changes between 5 and 7 years old.
3 Steps in age 5 to7 Shift based on Neo-Piagetian Analysis
1. single representations (4 years old)
2. representational mappings (5 to 6 years old)
3. representational systems (in middle childhood)
The first stage in self-definition wherein children describe themselves as individual, unconnected characteristics, and in all-or-nothing terms.
single representations (4 years old)
The second stage in self-definition wherein children make logical connections between aspects of self but still sees characteristics in all-or-nothing terms.
representational mappings (5 to 6 years old)
The third stage in self-definition wherein children start to integrate specific features of the self into a general, multidimensional concept.
representational systems (in middle childhood)
The judgement of a person makes about his or her self-worth.
True or False. By the end of age 3, individual differences in understanding conflicting emotions are evident.
False. By age 3
True or False. By the end of age 3, emotions directed towards self develop.
True or False. When self-esteem is contingent on success, they view failure as an indictment of their worth and may feel helpless to do better.
True or False. When kids are high in self-esteem, they are generally motivated to achieve.
This is the 3rd stage in Erikson's theory, when kids balance the urge to pursue goals with reservation about doing so.
initiative vs guilt (3 to 5 yrs old)
Refers to the awareness developed in early childhood that one is male or female.
It pertains to psychological or behavioral differences between males and females.
This is supported by the concept "78% of gender differences are small to negligible."
gender similarities hypothesis
Aspects of Gender Identity
1. gender roles
2. gender typing
3. gender stereotypes
These are behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex; differs from males and females.
A socialization process whereby children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.
These are preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior.
5 Perspectives on Gender Development
5. Social learning
Theory on gender development that believes many or most behavioral differences between sexes can be traced to biological differences.
Theory on gender development that kids develop gender roles in preparation for adult mating and reproductive behavior.
Theory on gender development that believes gender identity occurs when the child identifies with same-sex parent.
A gender development theory that believes once a child learns their sex, they sort information about behavior by gender and acts accordingly.
Cognitive Approach; Cognitive development theory
A gender development theory that believes the child mentally combines observations of gendered behavior and creates own behavioral variations.
Social learning approach; Social cognitive theory
A gender development theory that believes a kid organizes information about what is considered appropriate for a boy or a girl on the based on culture.
Who theorized Evolutionary Approach?
Who theorized Psychoanalytic Approach?