Parts of a Plant, Reproduction, and Plant Functions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Parts of a Plant, Reproduction, and Plant Functions Deck (81):
1

What are the two broad systems that specialized tissues and structures in plants make up?

Shoot system and root system

2

What does the shoot system primarily consist of?

Leaves, stems, reproductive structures (like flowers, fruit, seeds)

3

What does the root system consist of?

Roots

4

What are leaves in plants?

The mostly flat green parts of plants

5

What is the flat part of a leaf called?

Lamina, or leaf blade

6

What is the part of the leaf that attaches to the stem?

Petiole, or leaf stalk

7

Why are leaves typically large and flat?

To expose as many chloroplasts to sunlight as possible

8

What is the role of a leaf?

Where photosynthesis happens, and it's involved in the transpiration of water

9

Example of leaf with specialized functions (result: weird shape/colour)

Pine needle

10

What are the red flowers in the Poinsettia plant actually?

Specialized structures called bracts

11

In the Poinsettia plant, where are the actual flowers? What do they look like?

Between the bracts, small and yellow

12

What are bracts?

Specialized leaves that attract pollinators like bees and birds to flowers

13

What do pollinators' pollen contain, which is useful for flowers

The sperm, which they transfer from flower to flower

14

Describe stems in plants.

Structure that forms the core of the shoot system

15

What are the two parts that stems are divided into?

Nodes and internodes

16

What are nodes?

Where buds grow into leaves, other stems, or flowers

17

What are internodes?

The parts of stem between nodes

18

Most plant stems are found: above-ground or below-ground

Above-ground

19

Example of a plant whose stems are below-ground

Potato plant

20

What is the part of the potato plant we eat called? What is it?

Tuber, it's a specialized underground stem which stores the plant's nutrients

21

What is the role of a stem?

Provide support for plant; place for leaves, flowers, fruit to grow; keeps leaves facing the sun; transport water and nutrients up from roots; transport products of photosynthesis down from leaves; store nutrients

22

What are some human uses for plant stems?

Sugar from sugar cane stems, making maple syrup from maple tree stems (trunks), paper and wood, cinnamon from cork, cork from bark (outer layer of tree stems)

23

Define bark.

The outer layer of tree stems

24

What is a trunk in plants?

The stem of a tree

25

What is the root system?

System of structures usually found below ground

26

What is the role of roots?

To anchor plant to ground; take up water & minerals needed for growth and development; store food, nutrients; provide means of reproduction called vegetative reproduction (asexual)

27

Roots need oxygen even though they're usually below-ground. How do they get this?

From the oxygen found naturally between grains of soil.

28

What happens to roots if the surrounding soil is saturated (filled with water) and oxygen is forced out?

The plant will start to produce roots aboveground

29

Roots can have three different general shapes. What are these and their actual names?

Thin and hairlike (fibrous), short and thick (taproots), somewhere in between (e.g., buttress roots)

30

Plants can reproduce two ways. Name them and elaborate.

Asexually (offspring have one parent) - E.g., green algae by fission (splitting) and fragmentation (breaking apart)
Sexually (offspring have parents from each sex) by releasing gametes (reproductive cells)

31

What are spores?

Reproductive cells than can procreate without fusing with another cell (unlike seeds that form when gametes join)

32

Give a synonym for fission.

Splitting

33

Give an explanation of fragmentation.

Breaking apart

34

Spores have everything they need to grow into a _____ _____

Multicellular plant

35

Spores will grow under _____ conditions.

Good

36

Where are spores found in? Give examples

Non-seed bearing plants like green algae, mosses and ferns

37

Where are spores often located on? How are they carried around?

Underside of leaves, carried around by wind/rain

38

What is an advantage and a disadvantage of spores?

Less likely to be eaten by animals than seeds, but in danger of consumption from bacteria and fungi

39

What do flowers provide in terms of reproduction?

A way for sperm to find eggs, leading to fertilization, developing seeds

40

What are sepals in plants?

Green structures surrounding flower

41

What are petals in plants?

Inside sepals, modified leaves that serve similar function as bracts (attract pollinators)

42

What are stamens in plants?

Inside petals, contain filament with pollen-producing cells

43

What is a carpel in plants?

Inside stamens, contains ovary (where egg is)

44

What needs to happen for a seed to start developing in a flower?

Another flower's pollen must enter the ovary, and fertilize ovule

45

What are seeds?

Embryonic plants enclosed in protective seed coats

46

What are embryonic plants?

Immature plants

47

What does the endosperm contain in a seed?

Stored nutrients, rich in oil, starch, protein

48

How can seeds be dispersed?

Wind (if seed is light/structured specifically; water; animals (can have barbs to attach, or be eaten and dispersed by droppings)

49

Are spores more advanced than seeds?

No, seeds are more advanced than spores

50

Where are seeds present in? What are these seeds covered in?

Gymnosperms (covered by cones' scales), and angiosperms (covered with fruit)

51

What are cones?

Parts of conifers that contain reproductive structures

52

Female cones produce ____

Ovules

53

Are male cones larger or smaller than female cones? What do male cones do?

Smaller, produce pollen (yellowish powder)

54

What does pollen look like?

A yellowish powder

55

What do ovules become when fertilized with pollen?

A seed

56

Male and female cones are usually on the same plant. Are females on higher or lower branches than males? Why?

Higher, it prevents self-fertilization so that pollen of one conifer is likely to be carried by wind to female cones of different conifer

57

What is fruit and where are they only found?

The result of maturation of one or many flowers, only in angiosperms

58

What is fruit in cooking?

And sweet plant product

59

What is fruit in botany?

The ripened ovary of a seed bearing plant containing the seeds

60

What is the ovary wall in a seed also called?

The pericarp

61

What happens in angiosperms as a seed develops?

The ovary ripens and ovary wall becomes either fleshy (like apples & berries) or forms a hard covering (like nuts)

62

Give examples of fruit that is considered fruit botanically.

Beans, corn, tomatoes, peanuts, cucumbers, rice...

63

What are autotrophs, as in what do they do? What are they unique to?

Self-feeding, unique plant feature, make their own food from inorganic materials through photosynthesis

64

What are heterotrophs, as in what do they do? Give an example.

Get food from outside of itself, ex. humans

65

Thoroughly define photosynthesis.

Process in which plants convert light energy captured by chloroplasts to chemical energy needed for survival

66

What do chlorophyll pigments use to form carbohydrates? What do these carbohydrates do?

They use water & carbon dioxide from air, carbohydrates store energy

67

What are carbohydrates?

Compounds including all simple and complex sugars

68

Give an example of a simple sugar.

Sucrose

69

Give two examples of complex sugars.

Starch and cellulose

70

Where are carbohydrates stored in plants (give three)

Leaves and stems (potatoes), fruit (as pectin), roots (carrots)

71

What is respiration the opposite of?

Photosynthesis

72

What is the process of respiration in plants?

Oxygen reacts with sugar in plant cell, releasing the sugar's chemical energy. This is transferred to a new molecule called ATP, which is then transported around cell, performing tasks. This process releases carbon dioxide and water.

73

What is ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate

74

Unlike photosynthesis, respiration can happen both _____.

day and night

75

What is transpiration in plants?

Term for evaporation of water from the surface of leaves and stems

76

What is transpiration a necessary part of?

Photosynthesis and respiration

77

Water produced through respiration exits the plant through _____. Define this word.

Stomata, small pores in leaf that open and close

78

What does the stomata do that is necessary for photosynthesis?

Lets carbon dioxide enter plant

79

How does water initially enter a plant through the roots? How does it travel through the plant and how does it exit?

By osmosis, water travels up plant through xylem, exits leaf through stomata

80

How do plants conserve water when it's limited? What is the outcome of this? What, then, does the plant use to operate?

Plant closes stomata, decreases water evaporation, but also decreases amount of carbon dioxide that can enter the cell. Decreased rates of photosynthesis, slowing growth. Can use stored energy

81

Since plants can't move to find energy/water, how have the adapted ways to supply their needs?

Balance between water and nutrient uptake in roots, and energy uptake in leaves. Plant cell and plant body's anatomy allow plants to react to various habitats