Flashcards in Path GI neoplasia I esophagus & stomach Deck (31):
5 factors associated with squamous cell carcinoma
urban & lower SEC population
3 adenocarcinoma of esophagus risk factors
2 rare ones
Rare: sclerdermerrrer, Zollinger Ellison syndrome
SCCA vs adenocarcinoma male or female?
SCCA vs adenocarcinoma black or white?
SCCA vs adenocarcinoma location?
SCCA vs adenocarcinoma age?
SCCA vs adenocarcinoma risk factors?
EtOH, smoking SCCA
barium swallow results for esophageal carcinoma
narrowing & irregularity
staging of esophageal cancer 2
CT of chest (mediastinal spread)
EUS (depth of penetration, lymph node mets=bad)
bad. 55% unresectable. surg & XRT
5% 5-yr survival
37-3% 5ysurvival, depending on spread
hyperplastic gastric polyps description
<1 cm cystic masses, sessile/pedunculated
H pylori, atrophic gastritis, chronic inflammation
epidemiology of gastric cancer
declining incidence in US
Risk factors for gastric cancer (6)
chronic atrophic gastritis
prior gastric surgery
H pylori (5x risk)
how nitrates cause gastric cancer
bacterial growth, nitrate reductase, nitrites, N-nitroso compound
Types of gastric neoplasia (2 major)
gastric lymphoma 24%
gastric adenocarcinoma 74.6%
symptoms in gastric cancer
weight loss 62%
abdominal pain 52%
early satiety 18%
ulcer-type pain 17%
left supraclavicular node, met of gastric ca
sister mary joseph node
periumbilical nodule, met of gastric ca
diffuse, hard gastric carcinoma
agressive, 5%, bad
only chance for cure of gastric carcinoma
surgery. chemo may help after surg.
early mutation in esophageal SCCA
(no K-RAS or APC in SCC of esophagus!)
location of SCCA of esophagus
late appearance (years)
small gray-white plaque thickenings
protruding (60%), flat (15%), excavated (25%)
keratin pearls in SCCA of esophagus?
early mutation (1) and later (5) in esophageal adenocarcinoma or Barrett's epithelium?
hypermethylation of p16/INK4a
goblet cells in adenocarcinoma of esophagus?
gets rarer as more malignant/dysplastic
3 histology hallmarks of hyperplastic gastric polyps
excess of cells
dilated corpus (body) oxyntic type glands
fundic gland polyp
stratified columnar epithelium in edematous polyp
signet ring cells
indicates diffuse type gastric adenocarcinoma. (also possible in any adenocarcinoma)
how does obesity lead to esophageal carcinoma?
fat > gerd > barrett's > dysplasia > p53 & others > adenocarcinoma