PATH: Hemmorrhagic Disorders, Thrombosis, and Shock Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PATH: Hemmorrhagic Disorders, Thrombosis, and Shock Deck (21):

What are the potential causes of the pathophysiology of edema?

Increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure/ hypoproteinemia, increased capillary permeability, or lymphatic obstruction


How does increased hydrostatic pressure contribute to edema?

The increased hydrostatic presssure causes more fluid to leak into the interstitial space than can be reabsorbed by the lymphatic system


What are the mechanisms by which hydrostatic pressure increases?

Arteriolar dilation, increased venous pressure, and hypervolumia


What are the effects of congestive left and right heart failure?

Left- Pulmonary edema, Right- Systemic edema


What conditions could be responsible for causing decreased osmotic pressure or hypoproteinemia?

Nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, protein-losing gastroenteropathy, or malnutrition


What is dependent or pitting edema?

When you can push down on a patient's edema and it causes a depression that is slow to resolve


What is a hematoma?

A localized accumulation of blood in several layers of tissue


What is petechia?

small, needle-pin type skin or surface bleeding


What is purpura?

Small (


What is ecchymosis?

Larger (>1-2 cm), blotchy subcutaneous bleeding (bruise)


What is the difference between active and passive hyperemia?

Active is due to arterial dilation w/ increased flow into capillary beds, usually resulting in redness; Passive is due to impaired venous drainage usually resulting in blue-red color


What is nutmeg liver?

Statis of blood and passive congestion in hepatic venous circulation, mostly due to heart failure


What is shock?

Widespread hypoperfusion of tissues due to reduction in blood volume, cardiac output, or redistribution of blood, resulting in inadequate effective circulatory volume


What is the pathophysiology of shock?

Decreased CO--> decreased arterial pressure--> decreased cap. perfusion--> decreased venous return--> decreased preload--> decreased CO--> etc.


What is the body's initial defense to shock?

Vasoconstriction , redistribution of blood flow, shunting blood to vital organs, fluid mobilization and/or retention


What is the most common cause of septic shock?

Gram positive cocci


What is endotoxin?

Bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide cnsisting of toxic lipid A core and complex polysaccharide coat


What are the causes of cardiogenic shock?

Myocardial infarct, pericardial tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus, tension pneumothorax, acute valvular regurgitation, electrical dysfunction


What are the clinical stages of shock?

Early or Compensated shock (nonprogressive); decompensated but reversible shock (progressive), and irreversible shock


What signs are associated with nonprogressive shock?

Tachycardia, vasoconstriction, reduced urine production


What signs are associated with progressive shock?

Hypotension, tachypnea, and shortness of breath, oliguria, and worsening ciculatory and metabolic imbalances leading to acidosis