Flashcards in PATH: Hemmorrhagic Disorders, Thrombosis, and Shock Deck (21):
What are the potential causes of the pathophysiology of edema?
Increased hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure/ hypoproteinemia, increased capillary permeability, or lymphatic obstruction
How does increased hydrostatic pressure contribute to edema?
The increased hydrostatic presssure causes more fluid to leak into the interstitial space than can be reabsorbed by the lymphatic system
What are the mechanisms by which hydrostatic pressure increases?
Arteriolar dilation, increased venous pressure, and hypervolumia
What are the effects of congestive left and right heart failure?
Left- Pulmonary edema, Right- Systemic edema
What conditions could be responsible for causing decreased osmotic pressure or hypoproteinemia?
Nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, protein-losing gastroenteropathy, or malnutrition
What is dependent or pitting edema?
When you can push down on a patient's edema and it causes a depression that is slow to resolve
What is a hematoma?
A localized accumulation of blood in several layers of tissue
What is petechia?
small, needle-pin type skin or surface bleeding
What is purpura?
What is ecchymosis?
Larger (>1-2 cm), blotchy subcutaneous bleeding (bruise)
What is the difference between active and passive hyperemia?
Active is due to arterial dilation w/ increased flow into capillary beds, usually resulting in redness; Passive is due to impaired venous drainage usually resulting in blue-red color
What is nutmeg liver?
Statis of blood and passive congestion in hepatic venous circulation, mostly due to heart failure
What is shock?
Widespread hypoperfusion of tissues due to reduction in blood volume, cardiac output, or redistribution of blood, resulting in inadequate effective circulatory volume
What is the pathophysiology of shock?
Decreased CO--> decreased arterial pressure--> decreased cap. perfusion--> decreased venous return--> decreased preload--> decreased CO--> etc.
What is the body's initial defense to shock?
Vasoconstriction , redistribution of blood flow, shunting blood to vital organs, fluid mobilization and/or retention
What is the most common cause of septic shock?
Gram positive cocci
What is endotoxin?
Bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide cnsisting of toxic lipid A core and complex polysaccharide coat
What are the causes of cardiogenic shock?
Myocardial infarct, pericardial tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus, tension pneumothorax, acute valvular regurgitation, electrical dysfunction
What are the clinical stages of shock?
Early or Compensated shock (nonprogressive); decompensated but reversible shock (progressive), and irreversible shock
What signs are associated with nonprogressive shock?
Tachycardia, vasoconstriction, reduced urine production