Flashcards in Path Lab - Sickle Cell Anaemia Deck (19)
What is pallor and what are 3 common causes?
Pallor is paleness of the skin or mucous membranes. It can may be intrinsic to the blood itself or due to a reduction of blood supply to the skin (i.e. vasoconstriction).
Three possible causes:
- respiratory failure
What is splenomegaly and what are 5 causes of splenomegaly in childhood?
Enlargement of the spleen
S - Sequestering of red blood cells, i.e. sickle cell anaemia
P - Proliferation - secondary chronic inflammation of infection (EBV, SLE etc)
L - Lipid deposition - various disorders
E - Endowment - congenital disorders such as haemangiomas.
E - Engorgement - splenic trauma, heart failure, sickle cell, portal hypertension.
N - iNvasion - granulomatous, lymphoma, histiocytic of other haematological diseases, i.e. leukaemia.
What is dactylitis?
Inflammation of the digits.
It presents acutely as exquisite pain and swelling of the soft tissues in the dorsum of the hands and feet and can last 1-2 weeks.
What is a reference interval?
Upper and lower limits of a defined parameter for a defined population in which 95% of the individuals will fall. (incorrect term = 'normal range')
What do reference intervals vary according to?
Age, sex, pregnancy status, gestation in pregnancy, ethnic background, methodology of test.
Why might you see mild leucocytosis (increase in leucocytes) and monocytosis in the blood count of someone with dactylitis?
The mild leucocytosis would be caused by the monocytosis which in turn is secondary to dactylics (reactive monocytosis).
So you would actually expect to see this in someone with dactylitis.
What is anaemia?
Anaemia - reduction in RBC mass or concentration of haemoglobin in blood.
What are 3 broad pathological mechanisms that can lead to anaemia?
1. Impaired production of RBS (i.e. BM failure, malnutrition, renal failure)
2. Blood loss
3. Excessive RBC destruction (i.e. intrinsic red cell defects, haemaglobinopathies)
What would you expect the RBCs on a normal blood film to look like compared to sickle cell anaemia?
Normal: Uniform bioconcave disc with are of central pallor that does not exceed 1/3 o the diameter of the cell.
Sickle Cell: sickle shaped cells and some RBS may have lost area of central pallor. They may also be sparser than normal.
- may see Howell-Jolly bodies (small, round nuclear fragments left in cytoplasm of RBCs), target cells, acanthocytes. If any of these are present, there may be a problem with the spleen.
What would you expect the WBCs on a normal blood film to look like compared to sickle cell anaemia?
There may be cytoplasmic vacuolation in the monocytes which is typically reactive.
What would you expect the platelets on a normal blood film to look like compared to sickle cell anaemia?
Could be normal on both.
What are the 3 types of haemoglobin in a normal adult?
￼￼￼1.HbA - a2β2, The majority
2.HbA2 - α2δ2, 2.5 - 3.4%
3.HbF - α2gamma2,
What is haemoglobin switching?
At birth we have mostly HbF (90%) and about 10% HbA. But there is a gradual switching off of HbF and switching on of HbA after birth.
Which gene encodes beta globin protein?
What would you see in sanger sequencing in sickle cell anaemia?
In sanger sequencing, you would expect to see only one peak as a person needs to have both alleles mutated for sickle cell anaemia.
What is the mutation nomenclature for sickle cell anaemia?
HbS = haemoglobin sick
What are the hallmarks of sickle cell disease?
- vaso-occlusion ( circulation of blood vessels is obstructed by sickled red blood cells, causing ischemic injuries, often pain is present. Can cause chronic organ dysfunction)
Why do sickle cells cause blockages in microvasculature?
– Loss of deformability
– Loss of membrane asymmetry.
– Expression of other adhesion molecules.
What are the factors that promote and prevent sickling?
– Acidosis (eg infection,
– Respiratory compromise
• HbF- potent protector.
• maximising HbF prevents “crises”.