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Flashcards in patho quiz 2 Deck (41)
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1

What is the definition of non specific (innate) immunity?

This portion of the immunity does not know what type of bacteria or virus is attempting to invade the body, but realizes that it does not belong and attempts to get rid of it

2

What two componets make up non-specific immunity?

Physical/Chemical barriers and Cellular Mechanisms

3

What are some examples of physical/ chemical barriers?

Skin, mucous membranes, stomach acid, cilial action, cough reflex

4

What does species specific mean?

Which barrier is used depends on the specific organism's mode of entry and design

5

When are cellular Mechanisms Initiated?

when the pathogen has entered the body and the physical barriers have failed

6

Cellular Mechanisms are comprised of what?

Inflammation, phagocytic cells, and natural killers

7

Phagocytic cells are comprised of what?

Granulocytes and Agranulocytes

8

Which phagocytes belong to Granulocytes?

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils

9

What are neutrophils?

1st responders, fast, abundant; because they're mature, they're incapable of dividing; sensitive to acidic environment of inflammatory lesions, short lived and become part of the purulet exudate (pus)

10

What are the 2 fxns of Eosinophils?

1. Body's primary defense against parasites 2. Help regulate vascular mediators released from mast cells

11

What is the fxn of Basophils?

Release and stimulate mediators, such as bradykins to act as fighting cells

12

What are agranulcytes comprised of?

Monocytes & Macrophages

13

Monocytes

enter the circulation, migrate to the inflammatory site where they develop into macrophages

14

Macrophages

better suited for long term defense b/c they can survive and divide in acidic & low 02 enviornments; they're involved in the activation of the adaptive immune system; affect recognition of antigens and tolerate self-antigens

15

Natural Killer cells

Most aggressive, Fxn is to recognition and elimination of cells infected with viruses and abnormal host cells (cancer). Once it binds, it produces several cytokines and toxic molecules to kill target

16

What is specific immunity also called

acquired, adaptive immunity

17

What are the functions of adaptive immunity

Recognize self from non-self, memory, and specificity

18

What is memory?

remember antigen and how to attack it

19

What is Specificity?

antigen specifically recognized by antibody

20

What are the 2 arms of Specific Immunity

Humoral and Cellular Immunity

21

Humoral Immunity

Antibody recognizing antigen and binds to it; this can result in direct inactivation or activation of a variety of inflammaroty mediators that destroy the pathogen? Creates memory cells or effector cells, which make antibodies

22

What are the functions of antibodies

neutralize bacterial toxins, neutralize viruses, promote phagocytosis of bacteria, and boost inflammatory response.

23

Cellular Immunity

T cells, the different types of cells they differentiate into and the cytokines they secreate

24

What are cytokines?

They are messangers- trigger cell mediators to create more and take down antigens

25

What are B cells?

B cells are lymphocytes, that have a antibody on surface that will bind to antigen, once activated by help T will produce progeny of memory and plasma cells-- which produce antibodies

26

What are the antibodies of B cells?

IgG - 2 response, IgM 1 response, 1GA, Ige Allergies

27

What are T cells?

directly destroy antigen (killer T), can stimulate T and B cell ( helper T cell), inhibit T & B cell (suppressor T cell) and remembers antigen for future encounter (memory T cell)

28

Infection

The ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host

29

virulence

the capacity of a pathogen to cause severe disease

30

pathogenicity

the ability of an agent to produce disease. This depends on the speed of the reproduction, extent of tissue damage, and production of toxins

31

Modes of Transmission of Infection

human to human (maternal-child, bodily fluid), direct (ingestion/ wound), vector (mosquito)

32

Inflammation

a collection of conditions including: redness, swelling, heat, aches, and pain associated with the damaged tissue and organ orchestrated by means of the body's immunity process

33

What are the local symptoms of inflammation?

Redness (erythema), swelling (edema), heat, pain, exudate ( serous (yellow body fluid), fibrinous, purlent (extreme infection), hemmorhagic (blood))

34

What are the systemic changes due to inflammation?

fever, leukocytosis, increase in plasma proteins, Septic Shock = decrease bp, increase in HR & RR, infection, and scar tissue formation

35

Acute Inflammation

a defensive response to stimuli causing a protective vascular connective tissue rxn?. A HEALTHY response by the body to a harmful situation

36

Chronic Inflammation

dangerous, out of control immunologic RXN lasting longer thatn 2 weeks, persistence of infection, antigen or foreign body, prolonged irritation, auto-antibodies

37

What are the categories of Aspirin?

Anti-inflammatory Agents, Salicylates

38

What are the actions of Aspirin?

ASA- inhibit COX-1 & COX 2 and inhibits the synthesis of protagladins, resulting in analgesia, anti-inflammatory activity and platelet aggregation

39

What is the brand name of Aspirin?

Acetylsalicyclic, ASA

40

What are the indication for use of Apirin?

treatment of mild to moderate pain; fever; various inflammatory conditions; reduction of risk of death in MI PT w/ previous infarction, unstable angina pectoris, recurrent transient ischemia attacs, stroke in men who had transient brain ischemia caused by platelt emboli

41

What are the side/adverse effect of Aspirin?

bleeding, GI irritation, Reye syndrome in children w/ acute febrile illness, renal/hepatic toxicity.