Patho Quiz 2 Flashcards Preview

Adv Patho & Pharm 2018 > Patho Quiz 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patho Quiz 2 Deck (65):
1

Loss of distrophin protein leads to muscle tissue degeneration; genetic disease with adolescent onset

Muscular dystrophy

2

Autoimmune destruction of ACh receptors; muscle weakness worsens through the day

myasthnia gravis

3

inflammatory mononeuropathy causing loss of fine motor and pincer grip in hand

carpal tunnel syndrome

4

inflammatory demylination causing progressive muscle weakness, often preceded by an illness

Guillian Barre

5

slow degenerative disease of substantia nigra causes a decrease in dopamine activity and unopposed ACh activity; impairment of extrapyrimidal tracts inhibits ability to coordinate and control movement

Parkinson's disease

6

Symptoms of Parkinson's disease

*first can be loss of sense of smell, can precede rest by years

Resting tremors, pill-rolling

Muscle rigidity and bradykinesia, dec arm swing

Poor balance, shiffling gait, stooped posture

Loss of facial expression, soft voice

7

chronic, progressive, exacerbating/remitting demylination of CNS tracts leading to many symptoms including weakness, pain, and cognitive impairment

Multiple sclerosis

8

preganglionic fibers travel to ganglia close to organs before synapsing with shorter postganglionic neurons

Parasympathetic NS

9

cell bodies in craniosacral areas of SC

PNS

10

preganglionic axons synapse shortly after leaving SC in sympathetic ganglia; long postganglionic fibers branch so multiple organs can respond at once; exception is innervation of adrenal medulla, which bypasses ganglia for immediate effect

sympathetic NS

11

SNS meds cause more side effects because

their action is more systemic; PNS action is more specific to target organ

12

released by adrenal medulla and postganglionic sympathetic fibers

norepinephrine

13

NT synthesized in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental areas of brain; precursor or NE; 

dopamine

14

all purpose NT released by SNS preganglionic fibers, PNS pre and post fibers, and motor neurons

acetylcholine

15

alpha 1 SNS reception effects

*Vasoconstriction*

peripheral arterial constriction

decreased GI and urinary motility

release of Renin from kidneys

pupil dilation

arrector pili

16

alpha 2 SNS receptor effects

*The Regulator*

slows CNS during times of stress to promote clear thinking

17

PNS muscarinic M2 and M3 receptor effects

M2: decreases heart rate at the SA and AV node

 

M3: acts on smooth muscle in organs

increased GI motility

increased urinary motility promoting bladder constriction and sphincter relaxation

18

SNS Beta 1 receptor effects

Acts on HEART

to increase rate, conduction velocity, contractility, and automaticity

(also works on glands to dec saliva and inc sweat)

19

Beta 2 SNS receptor effects

Acts on LUNGS

*Bronchodilation*

dilates arteries in skeletal muscle

decreased GI motility (relaxes muscles in bladder and GI)

20

Beta 3 SNS receptor effects

Acts on adipose tissue

to mobilize for gluconeogenesis

21

vagus nerve effects

decreased heart rate

bronchoconstriction

stimulates peristalsis and acid secretion

stimulates bile release

22

simple vs. complex seizure

Simple: consciousness is not impaired

Complex:  consciousness is impaired

23

automatism (repetitive movements like smacking lips) occurs in 

complex partial seizures

24

partial vs. generalized seizure

partial: restricted to one hemisphere

generalized: both hemispheres

25

incidence of stroke greatly increases after 

75 year of age 

26

excitatory CNS NT

glutamate

27

inhibitory CNS NT

GABA

28

seizures are a dysfunction of 

ion channels. paroxysmal discharges from groups of neurons 

29

in epileptics, this is low

seizure threshold; neurons are hyperexcitable

30

There's 2-4 hours to save this salvagable tissue around the core of infarction in a stroke

penumbra

31

severe unilateral headache with nausea and vomiting

brain tumor

32

fever, HA, AMS, neck stiffness, n/v, photophobia

CNS infection

33

severe HA with or without photophobia, younger age

migraine

34

confusion with or without loss of consciousness, incontinence, tongue biting, tonic-clonic movements

seizure

35

sudden onset severe HA with photophobia

subarachnoid hemorrhage

36

generalized dizziness, and diaphoresis with or without hearing loss

vertigo

37

hyperreflexia and spasticity occur in

upper motor neuron lesions

38

hyporeflexia, fasciculations, and atrophy occur in

lower motor neuron lesios (peripheral NS)

39

motor neuron degeneration with muscle weakness and hyperreflexia, no sensory loss; loss of speech, swallow, respiration, death in 2-5 years

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

40

spinal nerve root disease signified by radiating pain that can "shoot" down extremities

radiculopathy; can be caused by disk herniation, trauma, or degenerative changes (OA)

41

Gram positive characteristics

thick peptidoglycan layer in cell wall

only one membrane (inner; outer and inner in Gm-)

techoic acid in CW (induces inflamm response)

42

Gram negative characteristics

thin PG layer

two membranes (outer and inner) 

larger periplasmic space (houses beta lactamases)

43

can live with or without oxygen

facultative anaerobes

44

bind to MHC II and T cells to overpromote immune reponse; induces AI activity (Kawasaki's disease, toxic shock, rheumatic fever)

superantigens

45

Probable causative organism: 

impetigo

Staph aureus

46

Probable causative organism: 

AOM

viral

Strep, moraxella, Hib

 

47

Probable causative organism:   cellulitis

Staph aureus

48

Probable causative organism:   periorbital cellulitis

Strep pneumoniae

Staph aureus

*medical emergency, infection can travel up optic nerve to brain

49

Probable causative organism:  pharyngitis

viral-adenovirus

strep pyogenes (group A)

EBV, coxackie, herpes

50

Probable causative organism: UTI/pyelo

E. coli

Klebsiella

Proteus

51

Probable causative organism: 

bronchitis

usually viral (RSV, adenovirus, coxackie, Flu, rhinovirus)

52

Probable causative organism:  CAP, 6 mos-5yrs

RSV, parainfluenza

53

Probable causative organism: 

CAP, school age kids

mycoplasma, Flu A

54

Probable causative organism:  CAP, young adult

mycoplasma

55

Probable causative organism: 

CAP, older adult

Hib, Strep pneumo

56

thick consolidation on CXR means it's probably 

bacterial

57

patchy, diffuse consolidation on CXR means it's probably 

viral

58

Acetylcholine action in CNS

Neuromodulator, not exactly excitatory or inhibitory

helps encode new memories

promotes neuroplasicity

triages responses: is immediate action needed?

(low ACh --> dementia)

59

these drugs are GABA mimetics

benzodiazepines

60

high levels of this NT in CNS can lead to toxicity, cell death, seizures

glutamic acid

61

pain neurotransmitter of the dorsal (sensory) horn of the SC; involved in emotional response to pain

released during inflammation and nerve damage

substance p

62

neuropeptides that act on opioid receptors to reduce the perception of pain

endorphins

63

where do endorphins come from?

produced by pituitary and hypothalamus, induced by exercise, excitement, sex ,love, spicy food

64

Protein deposits (Lewy bodies) develop in CNS--> Lewy body dementia. What are the early symptoms?

difficulty making decisions

visual hallucinations of animals and children

65