Pathogenicity and Clinical Significance of Bacteria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathogenicity and Clinical Significance of Bacteria Deck (36):
1

Staphylococcus aureus

Pathogenicity: enterotoxin, TSST1, superantigens

Clinical significance:
SSTI
Necrotizing fasciitis
Osteomyelitis
Endocarditis
TSS
CF pneumonia
Diarrhea (ingested preformed toxin)

2

Staphylococcus epidermis (CNS)

Pathogenicity: biofilm production

Clinical Significance:
Osteomyelitis
Prosthetic material infection
Nosocomial blood stream infection (IV catheters)

3

Group A Streptococcus (S. pyrogenes)

Pathogenicity:
Streptolysin (hemolytic exotoxin)
Erythrogenic toxin (pyrogenic)

Clinical Significance:
Pharyngitis (strep throat)
SSTI
Necrotizing fasciitis
Rheumatic fever
Streptococcal TSS

4

Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae)

Pathogenicity: polysaccharide capsule (covers up antigen)

Clinical Significance:
Early onset neonatal disease (pneumonia, sepsis)
Late onset neonatal disease (meningitis, sepsis

5

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Pathogenicity:
polysccaharide capsule
IgA protease

Clinical Significance:
Meningitis
Conjunctivitis
Community acquired pneumonia
Ottis media in children

6

Streptococcus mitis

Pathogenicity: extracellular polysaccharides enhance attachment

Clinical Significance:
Native valve endocarditis
Bacteremia
Meningitis

7

Enterococci

Pathogenicity: surface adhesins, secreted toxins

Clinical significance:
UTI
Endocarditis
Nosocomial VRE

8

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Pathogenicity: diphtheria toxin

Clinical significance
Diphtheria (pharyngeal)
Very virulent

9

Corynebacterium jeikeium

Pathogenicity: unknown (low virulence)

Clinical Significance:
Endocarditis
Foreign-body infections
Septicemia (IV catheters)

10

Listeria monocytogenes

Pathogenicity: hemolysin (exotoxin lyses RBCs). (Can grow @ 4C)

Clinical significance:
Gastroenteritis
Septicemia
Meningitis/Encephalitis (the bacteria is neurotropic)
Abortion, stillborn, preterm labor in pregnancy

11

Peptostreptococcus

Pathogenicity: unknown

Clinical significance: mixed anaerobic/aerobic bacterial infection (cutaneous, respiratory, oral, female pelvic)

12

Actinomyces israeli

Pathogenicity: disruption of protective mucosal surface

Clinical significance:
Oral/cervicofacial infection
Pelvic infections (on IUD)
Abdominal infection

13

Clostridium tetani

Pathogenicity: tetanus toxin

Clinical significance:

Tetanus (rigid paralysis)

14

Clostridium perfringens

Pathogenicity:
enterotoxins
alpha-toxin

Clinical Significance:
Gas gangrene
Bloody diarrhea (acute necrotizing GI infection)

15

Clostridium botulinum

Pathogenicity: neurotoxin

Clinical significance:
Botulism (flacid paralysis)

16

Clostridium difficile

Pathogenicity: toxin A and toxin B

Clinical Significance:

Diarrhea (hospital or antibiotic acquired)

17

Escherichia coli

Pathogenicity: endotoxin, exotoxin, capsule, pili

Clinical significance:
Meningitis in neonates
UTI
GI infection

18

Enterobacter spp.

Pathogenicity:
Exotoxin, endotoxin, capsule, adhesion protein

Clinical significance:
UTI
Nosocomial infection
Blood infection

19

Salmonella spp

Pathogenicity: survival in phagocytes and dissemination to other tissues

Clinical Significance:
GI infection
Bacteremia
Enteric fever

20

Proteus spp.

Pathogenicity:
Endotoxin
Exotoxin
Capsules
Adhesion proteins

Clinical Significance:
UTI
Nosocomial infection
blood infection
Staghorn renal stones

21

Vibrio cholerae

Pathogenicity:
somatic O antigens
exotoxin

Clinical Significance:
Cholera (GI infection)

22

Moraxella spp.

Pathogenicity:
Uncertain ( cell envelope adhesion factors?)

Clinical Significance:
Community acquired pneumonia

23

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pathogenicity:
Exotoxin A
Endotoxin

Clinical Significance:
Otitis externa
Pneumonia in CF
Ventilator acquired pneumonia
UTI
*found in hot tubs :S

24

Haemophilus influenza

Pathogenicity:
capsule
pili
endotoxin
outer membrane protein

Clinical Significance:
Meningitis
Epiglottitis
Conjunctivitis
Otitis media
Pneumonia

25

Neisseria meningitidis

Pathogenicity:
Capsule
Pili
Endotoxin
Outer membrane protein

Clinical Significance:
Meningitis

26

Neisseria gonorrhea

Pathogenicity:
capsule
pili
proteases
adherance proteins

Clinical Significance:
Pharyngitis (from sexual practices)
Gonorrhea
Conjunctivitis

27

Bacteroides fragilis

Pathogenicity:
capsule
endotoxin
enzymes

Clinical Significance:
abscesses throughout body
bacteremia
aspiration pneumonia
soft tissue infection

28

Helicobacter pylori

Pathogenicity:
Acid resistance
Gene associated with ulcers

Clinical Significance:
Duodenal and gastric ulcers

29

Treponema pallidum

Pathogenicity:
Lack of proteins on outer membrane
Antigenic variation

Clinical Significance:
Primary syphillis (painless chancre)
Secondary syphilllis (myalgia, headache, fever, rash)
Tertiary syphillis (general paralysis, tabes dorsalis)
Cardiovascular syphillis
Congenital syphillis (facial and tooth abnormalities)

30

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pathogenicity:
Survive and multiplie in alveolar macrophages
Carried in lymphatics

Clinical Significance:
primary pulmonary disease
reactivation disease
disseminated disease (bone, kidneys...)

31

Mycobacterium avium complex

Pathogenicity:
Inhibition of lysosome-phagosome fusion

Clinical Significance:
Pulmonary disease
Disseminated infection in AIDS pts
Opportunistic infection in immunocompromised pts

32

Genital Mycoplasma (M. hominis, M. genitalium)

Pathogenicity:
Resistant to beta-lactams

Clinical Significance:
Non-gonoccocal urethritis in males

33

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Pathogenicity:
Activates polyclonal T and B cells
Triggers formation of cold agglutinins

Clinical Significance:
Atypical pneumonia
Cardiac and neurologic complications
Dermatologic involvement

34

Chlamydia trachomatis

Pathogenicity:
Inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion

Clinical Significance:
Urethritis
Epididymitis
Proctitis
Cervicitis
pelvic inflammatory disease
conjunctivitis
Lymphogranuloma venereum
pneumonitis in infants

35

Chlamydophila psittaci

Pathogenicity:
bird vector

Clinical Significance:
atypical pneumonia

36

Rickettsia rickettsii

Pathogenicity:
dog tick vector
spreads cell to cell along epithelial cells

Clinical Significance:
Rocky mountain spotted fever (&rash)