Pathological Conditions Associated with the Elderly Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathological Conditions Associated with the Elderly Deck (30):
1

Osteoporosis

Disease process that results in reduction of bone mass - failure of bone formation to keep pace with bone reabsorption and destruction

2

Diagnostic criteria for OP

Bone mineral density at hip or spine that is greater than or equal to 2.5 SD below the young, normal mean

3

Osteopenia is diagnosed and defined as what

bone mineral density 1.0 and 2.5 SD below the young, normal mean

4

Fractures

High risk of fx in the elderly due to low bone density and multiple risk factors

5

Vertebral compression fractures

Usually occur in lower thoracic, lumbar regions (T8-L3)

6

Stress fractures

Common in elderly in the pelvis, proximal tibia, distal fibular, metatarsal shafts, foot

7

OA

A noninflammatory progressive disorder of the joints; typically impacts the hips, knees, fingers, and spine

8

Prevalence of OA

higher in males up to 45 and then by age 65 is 5x mroe likely in women

9

Cachexia

A mutlifactorial degenerative illness characterized by extreme weight loss and malnutrition, mm atrophy, fatigue, and weakness

10

Cachexia is associated with what

Chronic disease like cancer, HIV/AIDS, COPD, CHF, kidney failure...

11

Neuro pathology

Stroke
Parkinsons

12

Delirium

Fluctuating attention state causing temporary confusion and loss of mental function
Acute disorder that has potential to be reversible

13

Dementia

An acquired disorder of cog and bx impairment causing dysfunction in daily living

14

Characteristics of dementia

Deterioration of intellectual function
Disturbances in higher cortical functions
Memory impairment
Personality changes
Alertness is abnormal
Sleep fragmented

15

Alzheimers type dementia

irreversible, accounts for 60-80%
most common cause of dementia

16

Diagnosis of AD

Biomarkers tests - lumbar puncture will show elevated tau and phosphorylated tau, low amyloid levels
MRI scan

17

Stages of AD - Preclinical

individuals have measurable changes in brain CSF and blood biomarkers without noticeable sx

18

Stages of AD - mild

Characterized by mild but measureable changes in cog abilities noticeable to person affected and family members
able to carry out normal ADL

19

Stages of AD - mdoerate

characterized by noticeable memroy, thinking, and bx symptoms that impair a persons ability to function in daily life

20

Stages of AD - Severe

Characterized by loss in ability to communicate, recognize others, and complete dependence

21

Vascular dementia

10% of dementia
large and small vessel infarcts in both gray and white matter of brain

22

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Acquired, progressive degenerative brain disease resulting from repetitive head trauma

23

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy - pathophys changes

Tau positive neurofibrillary tangles
Neurophil threads and neocortical diffuse amyloid plaques with ot without neuritis plaques

24

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy s/s

Recurrent HA, dizzy
Agression, dep, anx, suicide
Impaired judge and impulsive
Memory loss and confusion
Progressive demetia
Movement disorder

25

Dementia with lew bodies

some symptoms of AD with sleep disturbances, visual distrubances, slowness, and other PD movement features

26

Creutzfeldt Jakob disease

rare and rapidly fatal disorder with memroy, bx changes, and incoordination; results from protein disorder

27

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Symptoms include memory loss, difficulty walking, inability to control urination, results from impaired CSF with build up of fluid in brain and inc brain pressures

28

Down sndrome

will demonstrate accelerated aging and AD tyoically in late 40s or 50s

29

Mini mental

Score below 24 ou of 30 is indicative of mental decline/dementia

30

Depression

a disorder characterized by depresed mood and lack of interest or pleasure in all activities and other associated sx lasting for at least 2 wks