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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (71):
1

at what stage are cells more susceptible to DNA damage

dividing cells

2

loss of which protein is linked to cancer

p53

3

what are free radicals

abnormally charged molecular species that bind to and peroxidation the lipid bilayer

4

what are free radical scavengers

get rid of free radicals and protect cells

5

what inactivates charged o2 species

dismutase

6

what drugs generate free radicals

paracetamol - metabolised in the liver leads to production of free radicals leading to oxygen toxicity and reperfusion injury

7

how is apoptosis carried out

cell collapses and the DNA fragments are taken up by adjacent cells

8

features of apoptosis

Individual/single cell deletion
May be normal or pathology
How we get rid of viral infected cells, cells with damaged DNA

9

features of necrosis

Death of whole tissue not just individual cell
Pathological
Elicits inflammation

10

characteristics of inflammation

redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function

11

two phases of acute inflammation and there action

Vascular phase - dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
Exudative and cellular phase - fluid and cells escape from permeable venules

12

chemotactic for neutrophils

bacterial products, complement components, cytokines and neutrophil products

13

Example of free radical

O2- (superoxide)

14

how does a neutrophil reach the site of the stimulus

margination, adhesion and transendothelial migration

15

what is margination

Loss of intravascular fluid and increased plasma viscosity slows flow allowing neutrophils to flow in the plasmatic zone

16

where does margination occur

venules

17

what is chemotaxis

how neutrophils find the site of inflammation stimulus

18

what are the major opsonins

Fc fragment of IgG
C3b
Collectins

19

what is the name given to formation of pus and what is it made up of

Suppuration
- neutrophils, bacteria and cellular debris

20

what is an access

collection of pus surrounded by a membrane of sprouting capillaries, neutrophils and occasional fibroblasts

21

benefits of inflammation

dilute toxins
entry of antibodies
fibrin formation
transport of drugs
delivery of nutrients and oxygen
stimulation of immune response

22

what is granulation tissue

new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process

23

M. tuberculosis found in cow milk

M. Bovis

24

what are the 3 types of cell types

labile (GI tract), stable (endothelium) and permanent (skeletal muscle)

25

how does granulation tissue proceed

through organisation to fiborsis

26

what causes wound contraction

myofibroblast

27

what are the two types of scar formation

hypertrophic or Keloid

28

2 steps of tumour development

initation and promotion

29

what is p53

tumour suppressor protein activated by stress

30

what do the following words mean; mulpiciative, auxetic, accretionary

Mulipicative - increase in number of cells
Auxetic - increased size on individual cells
Accretionary - increased connective tissue

31

what is IDDM

type 1 (treated with insulin)
REDUCED INSULIN LEVELS
ANTI-ISLET ANTIBODIES
KETOACIDOSIS
HLA LINKED

32

what is NIDDM

type 2 (not treated with insulin)
normal or decreased INSULIN LEVELS
No ANTI-ISLET ANTIBODIES
no KETOACIDOSIS
no HLA LINKED

33

what does hyperplasia mean

increase in cell number

34

what does hypertrophy mean

increase in cell size

35

what does atrophy mean

reduction in cell size and number in an organ that was normal size

36

what does hypoplasia mean

reduction size of an organ that was never fully developed to normal size

37

what does metaplasia mean

reversible replacement of one differentiated cell type with another mature differentiated cell type

38

what is a neoplasm

an abnormal mass of tissue, which growth exceeds normal tissue

39

what is cancer a sub group of

neoplasia

40

what is benign neoplasms

Resemble normal tissue – well differentiated.
Expansile growth - no invasion
Encapsulated
No necrosis
Diploid
Do not metastasise

41

what is malignant neoplasms

Invasive growth pattern – with rapid growth
Not encapsulated
Necrosis common
Aneuploid
May metastasise

42

two types of epithelial neoplasms

squamous and glandular

43

name of benign squamous and glandular neoplasm

squamous papilloma
Adenoma

44

name of malignant squamous and glandular neoplasm

Squamous carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma

45

what is dysplasia

a pre-malignant process; the intermediate step between the initial event and cancer

46

steps to cancer

1 - Normal
2 - Initial Event
3 - Mild Dysplasia
4 - Severe Dysplasia
5 - Invasive Malignancy

47

when does it become cancer

When breach basement membrane and invade connective tissue

48

what is metastasis

tumour implants that are discontinuous with the primary lesion

49

neoplastic cells are monoclonal - true or false and what does this mean

true
all cells are derived from a single ancestor

50

what are the routes of metastasis and which types of cancers favour them

Carcinomas favour lymphatic route.
Sarcomas favour haematogenous route.

51

Neoplasms PROGRESS and the neoplastic cells in are functionally HETEROGENEOUS - true or false

true

52

what are classical oncogenes

PDGF
EGFR
ras
src
myc
Bcl2

53

hallmarks of cancer

1 - Self-sufficiency in growth signals
2 - Insensitivity to anti-growth signals
3 - Evading apoptosis
4 - stimulate the growth of blood vessels to supply nutrients to tumors
5 - Sustained angiogenesis
6 - Tissue invasion and metastasis

54

pathogenesis of atheroma

fatty streak
fibrofatty plaque
proliferative atheroma
complicated atheroma

55

features of endothelial injury

Response to injury
Macrophages, platelets
Lipid accumulation
Smooth muscle proliferation

56

what increase leukocyte surface adhesion molecule expression

Complement Component C5a
Leukotriene B4
Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)

57

what is the name given to the process similar to atheroma but acts on the arterioles

Arteriolosclerosis

58

target organ damage

renal failure
retinopathy
foot ischaemia
poor healing

59

what are the complication of LVH

increased LV load
poor perfusion
interstitial fibrosis
mirco-infarcts
diastolic dysfunctions

60

what is blood clotting and what is it a defence mechanism against

Solid mass of blood constituents external to the blood vessels
haemorrhage

61

what is a thrombus

Solid mass of blood constituents formed within the blood vessel

62

what are the parts of virchow's triad

Stasis of blood flow
Endothelial injury
Hypercoagulability

63

how is a thrombus formed

platelets, coagulation cascade, fibrinolytic cascade

64

where do intrinsic and extrinsic pathways come together in the coagulation cascade

factor 10

65

what does the coagulation cascade lead to

a insoluble, cross-linked fibrin polymer.

66

what is an embolism

A mass of material in the vascular system moving from its site of origin to lodge in the vessels in a distant sites

67

what are the types of thromboembolism

DVT and PE
Arterial thrombosis and embolism

68

risk factors for DVT

post op, bed bound, travel

69

signs/symptoms of DVT

Unilateral leg swelling
Oedema
Pain

70

signs/symptoms of PE

sudden onset
haemoptysis
breathlessness
cardiovascular collapse and shock
cardiac arrest

71

what is zonal necrosis

necrosis predominantly affecting or limited to an anatomical zone