Flashcards in Pathology Deck (98)
What are some features of glomerulonephritis?
Secondary tubulointerstitial changes
What sort of distribution does pyelonephritis show?
Why can pregnancy predispose to pyelonephritis?
Which of the following is not a risk factor for pyelonephritis:
- Vesicoureteric reflux (Congenital/Acquired)
What are some vague signs of chronic pyelonephritis?
Hypertension and/or anaemia
How does chronic pyelonephritis appear on imaging?
Coarse cortical scarring
Distortion of calyces
How does Tuberculosis Pyelonephritis spread?
Where does Tuberculosis Pyelonephritis usually spread from?
Which of the following is not a symptoms of Tuberculosis Pyelonephritis:
- Weight loss
- Loin pain
Is the pyuria in TB pyelonephritis sterile or non-sterile?
TB pyelonephritis has caseous foci, what does this result in?
Slow growth with progressive renal destruction:
- Other viscera
What can cause necrotising cystitis?
What is characterised by multiple, small, fluid-filled cysts projecting into the lumen of the ureter. The cysts may resemble tumours?
Ureteritis + Cystitis Cystica
A 59 year old patient presents to her GP with haematuria and increased frequency. She notes that she had UTIs more frequently over the last 6 months and has also lost some weight. On further questioning, you find out that 3 years ago she went on a holiday to Egypt and returned with a papular rash and a dry cough, fever and some muscle aches. On pelvic x-ray, there is some calcification of her bladder walls. After cystoscopy and biopsy, the patient is found to have a squamous cell carcinoma of her bladder.
Schistosomiasis (caused by S. haematorium)
In males, what can cause urinary tract obstruction?
Posterior urethral valves
What can happen in prolonged urinary tract obstruction?
Detrusor muscle hypertrophy -> Diverticulum
What is hydronephrosis?
Dilation of pelvicalyceal system with parenchymal atrophy
What are the two main causes of hydronephrosis?
Urinary tract obstruction
Which of the following is not a typical cause of bilateral hydronephrosis:
- Urethral obstruction
- Neurogenic disturbance
- Vesicoureteric reflux
- Congenital abnormality
- Bilateral ureteric obstruction (Advance cervical carcinoma)
Which of the following is not a typical cause of unilateral hydronephrosis:
- Posterior urethral valve
- Pelvi-ureteric obstruction
Posterior urethral valve
If an obstruction is sudden and complete, what sort of hydronephrosis is seen?
As urine production is decreased quickly, there is little pelvicalyceal dilation
If hydronephrosis is severe, what effect does this have on the renal cortex?
What is the name given to a secondary infection due to urine stasis in hydronephrosis?
A dry and crusty full thickness epidermal lesion of the penis
A raised erythema on the glans
Erythroplasia of Queyrat
In what areas of the world is the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the penis increased?
In what people is squamous carcinoma of the penis almost exclusive to and why?
Uncircumcised men -> Poor hygiene
What infection can increase the risk of squamous carcinoma of the penis?
How do squamous carcinomas of the penis of the penis usually appear?
On glans or prepuce:
- Ulcerated and indurated OR
- Exophytic mass (growing outward)