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Year 2 - Renal (DP) > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (98)
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1

What are some features of glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulo tufts
Secondary tubulointerstitial changes

2

What sort of distribution does pyelonephritis show?

Patchy

3

Why can pregnancy predispose to pyelonephritis?

Ureteric dilation
Stasis

4

Which of the following is not a risk factor for pyelonephritis:
- Instrumentation
- Obstruction
- Vesicoureteric reflux (Congenital/Acquired)
- Circumcision
- DM

Circumcision

5

What are some vague signs of chronic pyelonephritis?

Hypertension and/or anaemia
Polyuria

6

How does chronic pyelonephritis appear on imaging?

Coarse cortical scarring
Distortion of calyces

7

How does Tuberculosis Pyelonephritis spread?

Haematogenously

8

Where does Tuberculosis Pyelonephritis usually spread from?

Lungs

9

Which of the following is not a symptoms of Tuberculosis Pyelonephritis:
- Weight loss
- Anaemia
- Fever
- Loin pain
- Dysuria

Anaemia

10

Is the pyuria in TB pyelonephritis sterile or non-sterile?

Sterile

11

TB pyelonephritis has caseous foci, what does this result in?

Slow growth with progressive renal destruction:
- Ureters
- Bladder
- Other viscera

12

What can cause necrotising cystitis?

Outlet obstruction

13

What is characterised by multiple, small, fluid-filled cysts projecting into the lumen of the ureter. The cysts may resemble tumours?

Ureteritis + Cystitis Cystica

14

A 59 year old patient presents to her GP with haematuria and increased frequency. She notes that she had UTIs more frequently over the last 6 months and has also lost some weight. On further questioning, you find out that 3 years ago she went on a holiday to Egypt and returned with a papular rash and a dry cough, fever and some muscle aches. On pelvic x-ray, there is some calcification of her bladder walls. After cystoscopy and biopsy, the patient is found to have a squamous cell carcinoma of her bladder.

Schistosomiasis (caused by S. haematorium)

15

In males, what can cause urinary tract obstruction?

Stricture
Posterior urethral valves
Prostatic disease

16

What can happen in prolonged urinary tract obstruction?

Detrusor muscle hypertrophy -> Diverticulum

17

What is hydronephrosis?

Dilation of pelvicalyceal system with parenchymal atrophy

18

What are the two main causes of hydronephrosis?

Urinary tract obstruction
Vesicoureteric reflux

19

Which of the following is not a typical cause of bilateral hydronephrosis:
- Urethral obstruction
- Neurogenic disturbance
- Vesicoureteric reflux
- Congenital abnormality
- Bilateral ureteric obstruction (Advance cervical carcinoma)

Congenital abnormality

20

Which of the following is not a typical cause of unilateral hydronephrosis:
- Calculi
- Posterior urethral valve
- Neoplasms
- Pelvi-ureteric obstruction
- Strictures

Posterior urethral valve

21

If an obstruction is sudden and complete, what sort of hydronephrosis is seen?

As urine production is decreased quickly, there is little pelvicalyceal dilation

22

If hydronephrosis is severe, what effect does this have on the renal cortex?

Thinning
Atrophy
Fibrosis

23

What is the name given to a secondary infection due to urine stasis in hydronephrosis?

Pyonephrosis

24

A dry and crusty full thickness epidermal lesion of the penis

Bowen's Disease

25

A raised erythema on the glans

Erythroplasia of Queyrat

26

In what areas of the world is the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the penis increased?

Latin America
Africa
Far East

27

In what people is squamous carcinoma of the penis almost exclusive to and why?

Uncircumcised men -> Poor hygiene

28

What infection can increase the risk of squamous carcinoma of the penis?

HPV

29

How do squamous carcinomas of the penis of the penis usually appear?

On glans or prepuce:
- Ulcerated and indurated OR
- Exophytic mass (growing outward)

30

In what people is a squamous carcinoma of the scrotum common?

Chimney sweeps