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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (67):
1

VINDICATEM

Vascular
Inflammation/infection
Neoplasia
Drugs/toxins
Iatrogenic
Congenital
Autoimmune
Trauma
Endocrine
Metabolic

2

What is vasodilation mediated by?

Histamine and Nitric oxide

3

Where are selectins expressed?

Endothelial cell surface

4

What do integrins bind to?

Cell wall, matrix and other cells

5

What increases selectin expression?

Histamine and thrombin

6

What increases VCAM/ICAM?

TNF and interleukin-1

7

Chemotaxis

When the cell follows a chemical gradient and moves along it

8

What are the 5 characteristics of acute inflammation?

Rubor, calor, dolor, tumor and loss of function

9

Which cells characters acute inflammation?

Neutrophils

10

What is needed for resolution to occur?

Good vascular supply and minimal cell death

11

Suppuration

Pus formation containing neutrophils, bacteria and inflammatory debris

12

Organisation

Restitution or scarring after lots of necrosis

13

When does scarring occur?

If damage has gone beyond the basement membrane

14

When is chronic inflammation favoured?

If scarring has occurred, the injury is persistent, there is an infectious agent or it is autoimmune

15

What is chronic inflammation characterised by?

Lymphocytes and macrophages

16

Granuloma

Aggregation of epithelioid histiocytes i.e. a big group of macrophages

17

Necrosis

The mopping up of cells by neutrophils when they die

18

Restitution

Progressive scarring where macrophages are replaced by fibroblasts

19

Hyperplasia

Increase in cell number - can be physiological or pathological

20

Examples of pathological hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia or lymph node hyperplasia in response to infection

21

Is hyperplasia reversible?

Yes

22

Hypertrophy

Increase in cell size

23

Atrophy

Reduction in cell size

24

Two mechanisms by which a cell can die

Necrosis or apoptosis

25

Necrosis features

No energy required and is always pathological

26

Coagulative necrosis

Preserves cell outline - associated with MIs

27

Caseous necrosis

Associated with TB, granulomatous

28

Liquifactive necrosis

No cell structure remains, occurs in the brain (bacterial)

29

Apoptosis characteristics

Requires energy and can be pathological or physiological

30

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

31

Which signals do death receptors sense?

TNF - inflammatory
Fas - Autoimmune

32

What initiates extrinsic apoptosis?

Death receptors

33

What happens in intrinsic apoptosis?

Growth signals from anti-apoptotic cells are removed so Bad and Bak are free to punch holes in the mitochondria

34

What is p53's role in apoptosis?

Induce it if DNA repair is unsuccessful

35

Cancer

Uncontrolled cell proliferation in which continued growth can invade other cells

36

Neoplasia

Autonomous growth without a stimulus

37

Dysplasia

Disordered growth which is not in response to a stimulus

38

Metaplasia

Reversible change from one cell type to another in response to a stimulus

39

Carcinoma in Situ

Dysplasia affecting the whole of the epithelium

40

Epithelium change in barrett's oesophagus

Squamous to glandular

41

Epithelium change in lung cancer

Glandular to squamous

42

What does radiation do to DNA?

Causes formation of pyridine dimers

43

What do cells produce to destroy surrounding tissue?

Matrix metalloproteinase

44

Angogenesis

Formation of new blood vessels stimulated by VEGF and PDGF

45

Adenoma

Dysplastic lesion of glandular epithelial tissue

46

Oncogene

A gene that is mutated from a gene for normal cell growth

47

Tumour supressor gene

A type of gene that makes a tumour suppressor protein - mutations in this can cause cancer

48

Where does p53 act in the cell cycle?

At G1 to pause the cell cycle by increasing p21

49

What is the function of PTEN?

Increases transcription of p27

50

Histopathology of malignancy

High N:C ratio
Pleomorphism
Hyperchromasia - increased DNA
Mitoses
Necrosis

51

Malignancy of the epithelium

Carcinoma

52

Malignancy of glandular tissue

Adenocarcinoma

53

Benign lesion of glandular tissue

Adenoma

54

Benign lesion of squamous cells

Papilloma

55

Malignancy of squamous cells

Squamous cell carcinoma SCC

56

Cachexia

Weight loss in cancer

57

4 "stages" to atheroma development

Fatty streak
Fibrofatty plaque
Proliferative atheroma
Complicated atheroma

58

What increases the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules?

C5a
Leyukotrine B4
TNF

59

What increases the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and ICAM?

IL-1
Endotoxins
TNF

60

Thrombosis

Formation of a blood clot which blocks the artery

61

Aneurysm

Balloon like swelling in the wall of an artery

62

Dissection

Tear in the inner wall of an artery, blood splits layers of wall

63

Which blood vessels do arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis affect?

Arteriosclerosis - arterioles
Atherosclerosis - elastic artery walls

64

Thrombus

Solid mass of blood clotting factors formed inside the vessel walls

65

Virchow's Triad

Vessel wall injury
Blood flow - turbulence or stasis
Blood constituents - platelets

66

Embolism

A mass of material in the vascular system which moves from its site of origin and blocks the vessel at a distant site

67

Two conditions associated with a thromboembolism

Deep vein thrombosis
Pulmonary thromboembolism