Flashcards in Pathology I, Exam I review for brain scape Deck (123):
Pathology is what?
the study of the nature and characteristic of disease including signs/symptoms etc.
impairment of the normal state of the living animal or pland body. It normally has distinguishing signs and symptoms
ability of organism to seek and maintain conditon of equilibrium and stability within its internal environment even with external changes
diseased state or symptom
simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditons in a patient
the state or conditon of being subject to death
doctor caused disease
disease or conditon whos cause is unknown or arrives spontaneously
objective, things the doctor can see
subjective, what the patient says they are experiencing
disease process that resolves spontaneously with or without specifict treatment.
an unhealthy condition or body or mind, sickness or disease
cause of diesase, genetic or aquired
temporal sequence and patterns of cellular injury that lead to disease
gross and microscopic changes of diseased tissue
morphologic changes, cellular adaptations
group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterie a particular abnormality or condition
signs and symptoms, progression, prognosis
What three things does eosin turn RED or pink?
cytoplasm, RBC, Collagen
What 2 things does hematoxylin stain blue to puple?
nuclei and bacteria,
What is and H and E stain?
Gold standard of microscopic examination of tissue using hematoxylin and Eosin
How can normal pink stained protein be differientated from amyloid that is found in disease?
Use the congo red stain that turns amyloid green under polarized light
In what 6 disease would you find amyloidosis?
B cell proliferations, chronic inflamation and renal failure, alzheimers, Type II diabeetes and prion disease
What is amyloidosis?
Idopatic (cause unknown) disease that has extracellular accumulation of amyloid in tissues,
What is amyloid?
pathologic protein found in lots of clinical conditions, mostly idiopathic, cause unknown.
Used to identify specific gene sequences.check for specific gene exhists for disease
Used to detect specific sequence of RNA
Used for lime disease, used to identify specific amino acid sequences
Cell death cause by irreversable cell injury
programed cell death, it does not cause inflammation
Most common causes of cellular injury?
Hypoxia, lack of acequate oxygen that is caused by ischemia is the most common cause of cell injury
What is hypoxia?
lack of adequate oxygen to tissues
What is ischemia?
lack of adequate blood to tissues caused by cardiopulmonary failure, or anemia, decreased oxygen carrying capacity
lack of total caloric intake
lack of total protein intake
What are 7 causes of cells injury?
lack of oxygen, infections, trauma, chemical, immune reactions, congenital disorders, nutritional imbalances
Vit A defidiency causes?
squamous metaplasia, immune defiency, night blindness
rickets and osteomalacia
bleeding and diathesis
megaloblastic anemia, neuropathy, spinal cord degeneration
megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects
ellagra - ddd diarrhea, dermatitis dementia and death
When would cloudy swelling occur?
whenever cells are incapable of maintaining ionic and fluid homeostasis
What are 6 places that free radicals come from?
UV, ionizing radiation, smoking, polution, inflammation, metabolism (mitochondria)
How does cell go from mitochondrial function that leads to swelling, 8 steps
1. mito disfunction, 2. decrease in oxadative phosphorylation, 3. release of cytochrome C to trigger apoptosis, 4. NaK ATPase fail, 5. influx of Na and H20 that follows, 6. cellular welling, 7. ER swelling
What is the most common form of necrosis?
Characteristics of coagulative necrosis?
denature and coagulation of proteins in cytoplasm
Three places coagulative necrosis is most common?
liver, heart and kidney
Liquafaction necrosis character
cell destruction by hydrolytic enzymes due to autolysis
Where is liquafaction necrosis found?
abcesses, brain infarcts and pancratic necrosis
Caseous necrosis characteristics
combo of coagulation and liquafaction necrosis, ie denature/coaguation of proteins with cell destruction by hydrolytic enzymes
Where would casuous necrosis be found?
granulomatous disease like TB with a soft friable cottage chese like appearance
What is more dangerous, dry or wet gangrene?
Wet gangrene is more dangerous because it almost always involves infection and it can spread quicky.
What category is gas gangrene in?
it is a wet gangrene cause by clostridium perfringens
THe difference between the look of dry and wet gangrene?
Dry gangreen looks like cuagulative necrosis while wet looks like liquefactive necrosis
How does gene reguation of apoptosis work?
One gene inhibits, bcl-2 and one gene stimulates, p-53
bcl2 does what
inhibits apoptosis by preventing release of cytocrome C and binding proteases that would otherwise cause apoptosis
p-53 does what?
stimulates apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle
two paths to apoptosis?
incrinsic with mitochondria and Extrinic with receptor initiated cell death FAS and TNF
What mediates the execution of apoptosis
cascade of caspases that activeate endonucleases and then digest nuclear and cytoskeletal proteins
Why are caspases importaint?
embryogenesis, menstration, thymus selective death of lymphocytes
Why would the appearance of lipofuscin be importaint?
Its not pathological, liver spots, indigestable material accumulating in the lysosomes most common in heart and liver
What is hemosiderosis?
Iron overload disorder, hemosiderin collects in skin and is slowly removed after bruising, heme that leaks is phagocytosed by macrophages that recovers iron,
Metastatic calcification is what?
occurs when there is elevates derum calcium or phosphate like durining bone destruction, milk, antacid abuse, and parathyroid adenoma
Distrophic calcification is what?
local calcification of non-viable tissues, atheroma, TP, on damaged heart valves
decrease in cell or organ size and functional ability
increase in cell size and functional ability due to increased synthesis of intracellular components
increase in number o cells in a tissue or organ
reversible change in one cell type to another often in response to irritation
abnormal proliferation of cells that is characterized by changes in size, shape and loss of organization
total loss of differentiation as might be seen in malignant neoplasms,
what is physiologic cause of hypertrophy?
lifting weights to increase muscle size, puberty, lactating breast
What is pathologic cause of hypertrophy?
cardiac muscle working to hard cus of hypertension
What are this heart walls a sign of?
diastolic failure, can fit enough blood in
What are thin heart walls a sign of, systolic failure
walls are not strong enough to pump the blood
What is signifigant in anaplasia?
total loss of differentiation, increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, nucleus will be strange shapes with corners rather than round
Primary intentions wound healing
primary union - approximate edges, epidermal aproximation under scab, ROUTINE SCARRING
Secondary intention or union
fail of first intention, huge hole, edges arent close together, more fibrin and granulation tissue is used, wound contracts
surgical, need sutures to help approximate tissue so it will heal more like primary DELAYED CLOSURE- leave open to make sure its not infected
in what intervention is granulation tissue used?
secondary inention filling of hole
agenesis is what?
complete absence of organ, like a missing kidney
underdevelopment of organ etc
Totipotent stem cell
can form every type of body cell, this is the first one.
can develop into more than one cell but are limited
example of multipotent stem cells?
adutl stem cells or cord blood stem cells
Primary stem cells, contiuously dividing like in the epidermis and epithelium
low level of replication like in liver or pancreatic acini
never divide like nerve cardiac myocytes and skeletal mm
Tissues with Labile cells?
surface epithelial, mucosal lining, hematopoietic cells, stem cells
Tissues with stable cells?
hepatocytes, proximal tubule cells, endothelium
Three stages of fracture healing?
Procallus, fibrocartilagenous and ossous
provide anchorage but no ridigity, this happens first
second stage with calous
What is the difference between traumatic and pathologic fracture?
Traumatic is from trauma, pathologic is from a disease, or dificiency like osteoporosis or bone cancer
Why are desmosomes importain in skin pathology?
because this is what should hold skin together and its often damaged
differnece between vitiligo and melasma?
vitalago is the absence of melanocytes forever, melasma is hormonally induced often temporay hyperpigmentation in the face.
what is the main difference between freckles and lintigo?
freckels have normal number of melanocytes that are producing extra melanin, lintigo is proliferation of melanocytes
localized proliferation of melanocytes
characteristic of a congenital birthmark?
are present at birth
what does nevus mean?
Nest, like in a mole nevocellular nevus it?s a nest of melanocytes
what would indicate a dysplastic nevus?
larger, irregular edges, pigment variation, chaning in shape in size
What melanoma has the best and worst prognosis?
Best prognosis is lentigo maligna melanoma, worst is nodular melanoma
what is the most common type of melanoma
superficial spreading melanoma
Malignant potential of melanoma is measured how?
by the depth of invasion, clarks or breslows
Acanthos nigracans is what?
looks like ring a round the collar, can indicant sugar regulatory problems or internal malignancies
What is the sign of leser trelat?
a bunch or seborrehic keratosis showing up all at once, it could indicate a malignancy
Basic pathology of psorisis
autoimmune, increased proliferation and turnover of epidermal keratinocytes, causing well demarcated red plaque with silvery scale.
What sign is used to detect psorisis
Auspits sign, scale removal causing pinpoint bleeding.
Basic pathophysiology of phemphigus?
the basment membran is separated from underlying tissue or the tissue immediately above basement membrane separates causing a bilister. This is cause by antibodies to desmosome. IgG A cantholysis
What test would be used to test for phemphigus?
Testing for antibodies for desmoglein 3 part of desmosome using floresence
What immunoglogulin is involved in pathologenis of dermatitus herpetiformis?
Dermal papillae, IgA against gliadin
What disease is dermatitis herpetiformis linked to?
what is the difference between xeres and exzema?
Xerosis is dry skin or membranes and ezema inflammatiory skin disease is characterized by an eurathematous (red) rash with puritus (iching)
what is the basis for the lupis rash?
DNA anti DNA immune complexes in the basement membrane of epidermis causeing epidermal atrophy
Is pityriasis rosea dangerous?
Ichy rash in tre shape following upper respiratory infection, it resolves on its own
Difference between erythema nodosum and erythema multiforme?
Erythema nodosum is on the shins and its inflammation of adipocyts and the cause is usually unknown, erythema multifoma is a hypersensitivity reaction caused by a reaction to a drug or bug bite and has a target shaped red marks.
What is signifigant in acitinic kerratosis?
old lady hands, its concidered precanderous pre SCC, induced by sun displasia or keratinocytes
what layers of skin is involved in SCC?
Keratinocites, the outer layers
What layer of skin in involved in BCC
Basment layer, stratum basalie