Pathology I, Exam I review for brain scape Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology I, Exam I review for brain scape Deck (123):
1

Pathology is what?

the study of the nature and characteristic of disease including signs/symptoms etc.

2

Disease?

impairment of the normal state of the living animal or pland body. It normally has distinguishing signs and symptoms

3

Homeostasis

ability of organism to seek and maintain conditon of equilibrium and stability within its internal environment even with external changes

4

Morbidity

diseased state or symptom

5

comorbidity

simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditons in a patient

6

mortality

the state or conditon of being subject to death

7

iatrogenic

doctor caused disease

8

idiopathic

disease or conditon whos cause is unknown or arrives spontaneously

9

signs

objective, things the doctor can see

10

symptoms

subjective, what the patient says they are experiencing

11

self-limiting disease

disease process that resolves spontaneously with or without specifict treatment.

12

death

not living

13

illness

an unhealthy condition or body or mind, sickness or disease

14

etiology

cause of diesase, genetic or aquired

15

pathogenesis

temporal sequence and patterns of cellular injury that lead to disease

16

morphology

gross and microscopic changes of diseased tissue

17

functional derangements

morphologic changes, cellular adaptations

18

syndrome

group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterie a particular abnormality or condition

19

clinical significance

signs and symptoms, progression, prognosis

20

What three things does eosin turn RED or pink?

cytoplasm, RBC, Collagen

21

What 2 things does hematoxylin stain blue to puple?

nuclei and bacteria,

22

What is and H and E stain?

Gold standard of microscopic examination of tissue using hematoxylin and Eosin

23

How can normal pink stained protein be differientated from amyloid that is found in disease?

Use the congo red stain that turns amyloid green under polarized light

24

In what 6 disease would you find amyloidosis?

B cell proliferations, chronic inflamation and renal failure, alzheimers, Type II diabeetes and prion disease

25

What is amyloidosis?

Idopatic (cause unknown) disease that has extracellular accumulation of amyloid in tissues,

26

What is amyloid?

pathologic protein found in lots of clinical conditions, mostly idiopathic, cause unknown.

27

southern blot

Used to identify specific gene sequences.check for specific gene exhists for disease

28

northern blot

Used to detect specific sequence of RNA

29

western blot

Used for lime disease, used to identify specific amino acid sequences

30

necrosis

Cell death cause by irreversable cell injury

31

Apoptosis

programed cell death, it does not cause inflammation

32

Most common causes of cellular injury?

Hypoxia, lack of acequate oxygen that is caused by ischemia is the most common cause of cell injury

33

What is hypoxia?

lack of adequate oxygen to tissues

34

What is ischemia?

lack of adequate blood to tissues caused by cardiopulmonary failure, or anemia, decreased oxygen carrying capacity

35

Marasmus

lack of total caloric intake

36

Kwashiorkor

lack of total protein intake

37

What are 7 causes of cells injury?

lack of oxygen, infections, trauma, chemical, immune reactions, congenital disorders, nutritional imbalances

38

Vit A defidiency causes?

squamous metaplasia, immune defiency, night blindness

39

Vit C

scurvy

40

Vit D

rickets and osteomalacia

41

Vit K

bleeding and diathesis

42

Vit B12

megaloblastic anemia, neuropathy, spinal cord degeneration

43

Folate

megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects

44

niacin

ellagra - ddd diarrhea, dermatitis dementia and death

45

When would cloudy swelling occur?

whenever cells are incapable of maintaining ionic and fluid homeostasis

46

What are 6 places that free radicals come from?

UV, ionizing radiation, smoking, polution, inflammation, metabolism (mitochondria)

47

How does cell go from mitochondrial function that leads to swelling, 8 steps

1. mito disfunction, 2. decrease in oxadative phosphorylation, 3. release of cytochrome C to trigger apoptosis, 4. NaK ATPase fail, 5. influx of Na and H20 that follows, 6. cellular welling, 7. ER swelling

48

What is the most common form of necrosis?

Coagulative necrosis

49

Characteristics of coagulative necrosis?

denature and coagulation of proteins in cytoplasm

50

Three places coagulative necrosis is most common?

liver, heart and kidney

51

Liquafaction necrosis character

cell destruction by hydrolytic enzymes due to autolysis

52

Where is liquafaction necrosis found?

abcesses, brain infarcts and pancratic necrosis

53

Caseous necrosis characteristics

combo of coagulation and liquafaction necrosis, ie denature/coaguation of proteins with cell destruction by hydrolytic enzymes

54

Where would casuous necrosis be found?

granulomatous disease like TB with a soft friable cottage chese like appearance

55

What is more dangerous, dry or wet gangrene?

Wet gangrene is more dangerous because it almost always involves infection and it can spread quicky.

56

What category is gas gangrene in?

it is a wet gangrene cause by clostridium perfringens

57

THe difference between the look of dry and wet gangrene?

Dry gangreen looks like cuagulative necrosis while wet looks like liquefactive necrosis

58

How does gene reguation of apoptosis work?

One gene inhibits, bcl-2 and one gene stimulates, p-53

59

bcl2 does what

inhibits apoptosis by preventing release of cytocrome C and binding proteases that would otherwise cause apoptosis

60

p-53 does what?

stimulates apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle

61

two paths to apoptosis?

incrinsic with mitochondria and Extrinic with receptor initiated cell death FAS and TNF

62

What mediates the execution of apoptosis

cascade of caspases that activeate endonucleases and then digest nuclear and cytoskeletal proteins

63

Why are caspases importaint?

embryogenesis, menstration, thymus selective death of lymphocytes

64

Why would the appearance of lipofuscin be importaint?

Its not pathological, liver spots, indigestable material accumulating in the lysosomes most common in heart and liver

65

What is hemosiderosis?

Iron overload disorder, hemosiderin collects in skin and is slowly removed after bruising, heme that leaks is phagocytosed by macrophages that recovers iron,

66

Metastatic calcification is what?

occurs when there is elevates derum calcium or phosphate like durining bone destruction, milk, antacid abuse, and parathyroid adenoma

67

Distrophic calcification is what?

local calcification of non-viable tissues, atheroma, TP, on damaged heart valves

68

atrophy

decrease in cell or organ size and functional ability

69

hypertrophy

increase in cell size and functional ability due to increased synthesis of intracellular components

70

hyperplasia

increase in number o cells in a tissue or organ

71

metaplasia

reversible change in one cell type to another often in response to irritation

72

displasia

abnormal proliferation of cells that is characterized by changes in size, shape and loss of organization

73

anaplasia

total loss of differentiation as might be seen in malignant neoplasms,

74

what is physiologic cause of hypertrophy?

lifting weights to increase muscle size, puberty, lactating breast

75

What is pathologic cause of hypertrophy?

cardiac muscle working to hard cus of hypertension

76

What are this heart walls a sign of?

diastolic failure, can fit enough blood in

77

What are thin heart walls a sign of, systolic failure

walls are not strong enough to pump the blood

78

What is signifigant in anaplasia?

total loss of differentiation, increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, nucleus will be strange shapes with corners rather than round

79

Primary intentions wound healing

primary union - approximate edges, epidermal aproximation under scab, ROUTINE SCARRING

80

Secondary intention or union

fail of first intention, huge hole, edges arent close together, more fibrin and granulation tissue is used, wound contracts

81

tertiary intention

surgical, need sutures to help approximate tissue so it will heal more like primary DELAYED CLOSURE- leave open to make sure its not infected

82

in what intervention is granulation tissue used?

secondary inention filling of hole

83

agenesis is what?

complete absence of organ, like a missing kidney

84

Hypoplasis

underdevelopment of organ etc

85

Totipotent stem cell

can form every type of body cell, this is the first one.

86

multipotentet

can develop into more than one cell but are limited

87

example of multipotent stem cells?

adutl stem cells or cord blood stem cells

88

Labile cells-

Primary stem cells, contiuously dividing like in the epidermis and epithelium

89

Stable cells

low level of replication like in liver or pancreatic acini

90

Penmanent cells

never divide like nerve cardiac myocytes and skeletal mm

91

Tissues with Labile cells?

surface epithelial, mucosal lining, hematopoietic cells, stem cells

92

Tissues with stable cells?

hepatocytes, proximal tubule cells, endothelium

93

Three stages of fracture healing?

Procallus, fibrocartilagenous and ossous

94

Procallus

provide anchorage but no ridigity, this happens first

95

Fibrocartilagenous stage

second stage with calous

96

Osseous stage

callous

97

What is the difference between traumatic and pathologic fracture?

Traumatic is from trauma, pathologic is from a disease, or dificiency like osteoporosis or bone cancer

98

Why are desmosomes importain in skin pathology?

because this is what should hold skin together and its often damaged

99

differnece between vitiligo and melasma?

vitalago is the absence of melanocytes forever, melasma is hormonally induced often temporay hyperpigmentation in the face.

100

what is the main difference between freckles and lintigo?

freckels have normal number of melanocytes that are producing extra melanin, lintigo is proliferation of melanocytes

101

lentigo

localized proliferation of melanocytes

102

characteristic of a congenital birthmark?

are present at birth

103

what does nevus mean?

Nest, like in a mole nevocellular nevus it?s a nest of melanocytes

104

what would indicate a dysplastic nevus?

larger, irregular edges, pigment variation, chaning in shape in size

105

What melanoma has the best and worst prognosis?

Best prognosis is lentigo maligna melanoma, worst is nodular melanoma

106

what is the most common type of melanoma

superficial spreading melanoma

107

Malignant potential of melanoma is measured how?

by the depth of invasion, clarks or breslows

108

Acanthos nigracans is what?

looks like ring a round the collar, can indicant sugar regulatory problems or internal malignancies

109

What is the sign of leser trelat?

a bunch or seborrehic keratosis showing up all at once, it could indicate a malignancy

110

Basic pathology of psorisis

autoimmune, increased proliferation and turnover of epidermal keratinocytes, causing well demarcated red plaque with silvery scale.

111

What sign is used to detect psorisis

Auspits sign, scale removal causing pinpoint bleeding.

112

Basic pathophysiology of phemphigus?

the basment membran is separated from underlying tissue or the tissue immediately above basement membrane separates causing a bilister. This is cause by antibodies to desmosome. IgG A cantholysis

113

What test would be used to test for phemphigus?

Testing for antibodies for desmoglein 3 part of desmosome using floresence

114

What immunoglogulin is involved in pathologenis of dermatitus herpetiformis?

Dermal papillae, IgA against gliadin

115

What disease is dermatitis herpetiformis linked to?

celiac sprue

116

what is the difference between xeres and exzema?

Xerosis is dry skin or membranes and ezema inflammatiory skin disease is characterized by an eurathematous (red) rash with puritus (iching)

117

what is the basis for the lupis rash?

DNA anti DNA immune complexes in the basement membrane of epidermis causeing epidermal atrophy

118

Is pityriasis rosea dangerous?

Ichy rash in tre shape following upper respiratory infection, it resolves on its own

119

Difference between erythema nodosum and erythema multiforme?

Erythema nodosum is on the shins and its inflammation of adipocyts and the cause is usually unknown, erythema multifoma is a hypersensitivity reaction caused by a reaction to a drug or bug bite and has a target shaped red marks.

120

What is signifigant in acitinic kerratosis?

old lady hands, its concidered precanderous pre SCC, induced by sun displasia or keratinocytes

121

what layers of skin is involved in SCC?

Keratinocites, the outer layers

122

What layer of skin in involved in BCC

Basment layer, stratum basalie

123

What skin layer for melanoma?

Stratum basale with melanocytes