Pathology of pituitary and adrenal gland Flashcards Preview

Endocrine week 3 > Pathology of pituitary and adrenal gland > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of pituitary and adrenal gland Deck (18):
1

What are the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland ?

  • TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
  • GH and Prolactin

2

What are the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?

ADH and oxytocin 

3

4

What are some of the pathologies affecting the anterior pituitary gland ?

Hyperfunction:

  • Adenoma
  • Carcinoma

Hypofunction:

  • Surgery/radiation
  • Sudden Haemorrhage into gland
  • Ischaemic necrosis - Sheehan Syndrome
  • Tumours extending into sella
  • Inflammatory conditions (Sarcoidosis)

5

What are some of the pathologies affecting the posterior pituitary gland ?

Diabetes Insipidus:

  • Lack of ADH secretion
  • Can lead to life threatening dehydration

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH):

  • Ectopic secretion of ADH by tumours
  • Primary disorder in the pituitary

6

Describe the characteristics of pituitary adenomas 

  • Most common lesions of anterior pituitary 
  • Small pituitary adenomas usually go unnoticed and are found post-mortem 
  • If large enough may push on optic chiasm and produce visual distrubances, headache also common 
  • Can cause excessive secretion of anterior pituitary hormones 

 

7

How do pituitary adenomas arise ?

Either sporadic or may be due to MEN1 syndrome 

8

How are pituitary adenomas classified ?

By cell type and hormone secreted 

  • Prolactin (20-30%)
  • ACTH (10-15%)
  • FSH/LH (10-15%)
  • GH (5%)
  • Can produce more than one
  • Can be hypo / non-functional (25-30%)
  • hormone production may be at subclinical levels

9

What can prolactinomas (prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma) cause ?

Infertility, lack of libido, amenorrhea

10

What condition is GH secreting pituitary adenomas associated with ?

Gigantism or acromegaly

11

What is ACTH secreting pituitary adenomas associated with ?

Cushing’s disease

12

What are some of the causes of panhypopituitarism ?

  • Granulomatous inflammation – sarcoidosis
  • Infarction – Sheehan’s syndrome
  • Primary or metastatic tumours

13

What are some of the types of diabetes insipidus ?

Central:

  • ADH deficiency
  • Trauma (including surgery), tumours and inflammatory disorders of hypothalamus and pituitary

Nephrogenic:

  • Renal resistance to ADH effects

14

What is SIADH?

Ectopic production of ADH

15

Where are the adrenal glands located ?

Bilateral glands which sit superior and medial to upper pole of kidneys

16

What is the adrenal gland composed of ?

An outer cortex and inner medulla 

A image thumb
17

What are some of the pathologies affecting the adrenal glands ?

Hyperfunction:

  • Hyperplasia
  • Adenoma
  • Carcinoma

Hypofunction:

  • Acute -Waterhouse-Friderichsen
  • Chronic - Addison’s disease

18

What are the features of adrenocortical adenomas ?

Well circumcised, yellow/brown in appearance 

Composed of cells resembling adrenocortical cells