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Flashcards in Pathology (Roecker Review) Deck (294):
1

What is Dysplasia

Disordered cell Growth (increase CA risk)

2

What is Metaplasia

Reversible Change from one cell type to another

3

What is Hypoxia

When tissue is deprived of Oxygen

4

What is Ischemia

Restriction in blood supply

5

What is abscess

Collection of pus

6

What is hypertrophy

Cells become larger

7

What is Hyperplasia

Cell become more numerous

8

What is Atrophy

Reduced size of cells/organs

9

What is a Granuloma

Collection of macrophages from chronic inflammation

10

What type of necrosis is associated with an infarct

Coagulative

11

What type of liquefaction is associated with microbes or strokes

Liquefactive

12

What type of necrosis is associated with ischemia

Gangrenous

13

What type of necrosis is associated with TB

Caseous

14

What type of necrosis is associated with a ruptured pancreas

Fat

15

What type of necrosis is associated with Polyarteritis nodosa and RA

Fibrinoid

16

What is apoptosis

programmed cell death, non-inflammatory

17

What is Autophagy

Cell death in responce to a virus or infection; a type of survival mechanism

Non-imflammatory

18

What does telomere shortening cause

Aging

19

Is cell injury associated with Fatty accumulation reversable?

Yes

20

What type of cell injury is secondary to inflammation

Leukocyte-induced tissue injury

21

what type of calcification is associated with necrotic tissue

Dystrophic

22

What type of calcification is associated with normal tissue

Metastatic

23

What is stenosis

Accumulation of fat within hepatocyte

24

What can stimulate inflammation

Injury
Infection
reaction

25

What type of lymphcyte is associated with acute inflammattion

Neurophils

26

What type of lymphocyte is associated with Chronic inflammation

Macrophages/Lymphocytes

27

What are some common chronic inflammatory conditions

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)
Pneumoconiosis
RA
Lupus
HIV/AIDS

28

What type of granuloma is associated with Sarcoidosis

Non-Caseous granuloma

29

What type of accumulation of fluid in tissue is protein poor

Transudate

30

What type of accumulation of fluid in tissue is protein rich

Exudate

31

What is accumulation of transudate often associated with

Chronic heart failure

32

What type of inflammation is associated with a blister

Serous

33

What type of inflammation is associated with pericarditis (or creation of fibrous tissue)

Fibrinous

34

What type of inflammation is associated an accumulation of pus

Suppurative

35

What type of inflammation is associated with diptheria (fake membranes)

Psudomembranous

36

What are the different types of cell-derived chemical mediators of inflammation

Cytokines
ROS
Histamine
Postaglandines

37

What are the different types of plasma-protein derived chemical mediators of inflammation

Complement
Kinins
Preteases

38

What are some systemic effects of inflammation

Fever (hypothalamus)
Cytokines
Leukocytosis

39

What causes oxidative bursts in responce to microbial infection

White blood cells

40

What type of neoplasims have oma at the end of of its name

Benign (ex. adenoma, papilloma, teratoma)

41

What a malignant neoplasms from epithelial tissue

Carcinoma

42

What is the most common form of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

43

What is the 2nd most common form of skin cancer

Aquamous cell carcinoma

44

What is a cancer of a glandular tissue

Adenocarcinoma

45

What is a malignanat neoplasm of mesenchymal cells (connective tissue)

Sarcoma

46

What type of sarcoma is associated with intense sun exposure

Melanoma

47

What type of sarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer

Osteosarcoma

48

What type of sarcoma is the second most common type of bone cancer

Chondrosarcoma

49

What type of sarcoma is the third most common type of bone cancer

Ewing sarcoma

50

What is the most common type of chromosomal disorders

Trisomy 21 (downs)

51

What disease is common in trisomy 21 patients

Alzheimer disease

52

What is the common name for Trisomy 18

Edwards syndrome

53

What is the common name for Trisomy 13

Patau syndome

54

What conditions are associated with Trisomy 13 (patau syndrome)

Renal dysfunction
Death by age 1

55

What chromosome is associated with a cat-like cry

Cri du chat syndrome

56

What type of Chromosome abnormality has more than two X's and a Y (XXY)

Klinefeler syndrome

57

What chromosomal abnormality is the most common cause of male sterility

Klinefelter syndrome

58

What type chromosomal abnormality has a loss of 1 X chromosome, neck webbing, short stature

Turner syndrome

59

What chromosomal abnormality makes a phenotypically male but looks like a female

Klinefelter syndrome

60

What chromosomal abnormaliity is associated with a phenotypically female with a male appearance

Turner syndrome

61

What type of Chromosomal abnormality is passed from Grandfathers to grandsons through daughters

Fragile X syndrome

62

What condition is associated with a lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase and a mousy odor from urine

Phenylketonuria

63

What condition is associated with disorded galactose metabolism

Galactosemia

64

What type of lysosomal disease is associated with an inability to metabolize gangliosides

Tay-Sachs Disease

65

What type of lysosomal disease is common in ashkenazi jews

Tay-Sachs disease

66

What type of lysosomal storage disease is associated with sphingomyelinase deficiency and is fatal by age 3

Niemann-pick disease, type A & B

67

What type of lysosomal storage disease is associated with defective lipid transpostation

Niemann-pick disease type C

68

What type of lysosomal disease is associated with Glucocerebrosidase gene mutation and causes Osseous distortion

Gaucher Disease

69

What type of lysosomal storage diseases cause extracellular matrix breakdown of enzymes, course facial features and corneal clousing

Mucopolysaccharidosis

70

Where does glycogen accumulate in glycogen storage disease

The liver

71

What disease is associated with copper accumulation in several tissues, may cause liver failure, kayser-Fleischer ring around the iris

Wilsons disease

72

What are the main perinatal infections

Toxoplasmosis
Rubella virus
Cytomegalovirus
Herpesvirus

73

What are risks of SIDS

Prone sleeping
soft bedding
Maternal smoking

74

What is the cause of neonatal respiratoy distress syndrome

Prematurity
Insufficient pulmonary surfactant

75

what is the cause of necrotizing enterocolitis

Prematuriy
Bowel necrosis

76

What is the cause of Immune fetal hydrops

maternal-fetal blood incompatibility

77

What is the cause of nonimmune fetal hydrops

Chromosome abnormalities

78

What are signs of Cystic fibrosis

Salty kiss
Recurrent lung infections
Hypoxia (nail clubbing)

79

What condition is associated with Fibrillin gene mutation, slender long arms, hypermobility

Marfan syndrome

80

What condition is associated with defective collagen synthesis, Hyperextensible skin

Ehlers Danlos syndrome

81

What pediatric tumor is a benign tumor at the base of the coccyx

Sarcooccygel teratoma

82

What pediatric tumor is malignant and from neural crest-derived cells

Neuroblastoma

83

What is a common pediatric eye malignancy caused by a RB gene mutation

Retinoblastoma

84

What is a common pediatric kidney malignancy. causes Hematuria, abnormal pain

Wilms tumor

85

What is a benign self-limiting pediatric endothelial tumor. Strawberry hemangioma on the face/scalp

Hemangioma

86

What is a type I hypersensitivity associated with

Allergens, IgE (remember IgE stung by a BEE)

87

What is a type II hypersensitivity associated with

Cytotoxic; IgM or IgG antibodies against host cells

88

What is a Type III hypersensitivity associated with

Autoimmune/hypersensitivity; exposure to antigens cause IgG production

89

What is a type IV hypersensitivity associated with

T cell mediated; T cells are stimulated by an antigen

possible granuloma formation

90

What autoimmune disease is associated wih CD4+ T cells that target the MP joints

Rheumatoid arthritis (Type IV)

91

What type of autoimmune disease is a type III hypersensitivity and associated with malar rash on the face and common amoung females

Lupus

92

What auto immune disease of joints is associated with sausage digits (pencil-in-cup deformation of the DOP joints

Psoriatic arthritis

93

What type of auto immune disease is associated with ulcerative solitis or shigellosis

Enteropathic arthritis

94

What type of auto immune disease is associated with sacroiliac joint inflammation and eventual fusion

Ankylosing spondylitis

95

What type of auto immune disease is associated with urethritis (chlamydia), conjunctivitis, achilles tendon pain

reactive arthrisis

96

What conditions are commonly assocaited with HIV/AIDS

Kaposi Sarcoma
Pneumocystis pneumonia

97

What dietary disease results from reduced total calories,

Causes; stunted growth, loss of muscle and fat mass and a decreased immune response

Marasmus

98

What dietary deficeiency results from reduced total calories

Causes; Chronic diarrhea, edema from hypoalbuminemia, fatty liver, loss of appetite, dec immunity

Kwashiorkor

99

What vitamin deficiency causes night blindness, bitot spots, immunosuppression

Vitamin A deficiency

100

What type of vitamin deficiency causes Osteoporosis, Rickets, osteomalacia

Vitamin D deficiency

101

What type of vitamin deficiency causes neurodegeneration, myopathy and peripheral neuropathy

Vitamin E deficiency

102

What vitamin deficiency causes Hemorrhage osteoporosis

Vitamin K deficiency

103

What vitamin deficiency causes Scurvy

Vitamin C deficiency

104

What are the different types of Thamin (B1) deficiency

Dry beriberi
Wet beriberi
Acute beriberi

105

What condition is associated with Alcoholics and vitamin B1 (thamin) deficiency

Korsakoff's syndrome

106

What vitamin deficiency is associated with Pellagra

Niacin deficiency

107

What type of vitamin deficiency is associated with megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, neuropathy

Vitamin B12

108

What type of vitamin deficiency is associated with megaloplastic anemia, no neuropathy

Folate deficiency

109

What type of mineral deficiency is associated with tetany, osteoporosis, osteomalacia

Calcium

110

What type of mineral deficiency is associated with arrhythmia, myopathy, reduced cognition

Potassium

111

What type of mineral deficiency is associated with microcytic anermia

Iron deficiency

112

What type of mineral deficiency is associated with goiter and cretinism

Iodine deficiency

113

What is a xenobiotic

Exogenous chemicals not normally inside a host and is produced by a microbe

114

What chemical can bind to hemoglobin with more affinity than oxygen. Will cause hypoxia

Carbon monoxide

115

What is produced by the breakdown of uranium in the ground

radon

116

What age group is most likely to be affected by lead poisionoing and how do they get exposed

Children, Paint chips

117

Arsenic in soil is likely to cause what to those exposed to it

Squamous cell carcinoma

118

What does cadmium poisioning cause

Lung disease
Kidney damage

119

In large doses what can acetaminophen cause

Liver cell necrosis

120

In large doses, what can asprin cause

Respiratory alkalosis

121

What can cause malignant hyperthermia

Unregulated calcium balance
surgical sedation

122

What condition is associated with Reduced bone mineral density, common in the elderly

Osteoporosis

123

what condition is caused by osteolysis followed by deposition of disorganized bone (shaggy appearance)

Paget disease

124

Condition associated with Bowing of femur and tibia in children

Rickets

125

Condition associated with bowing of femur and tibia in adultes

Osteomalacia

126

Wha is caused by disruption of vascular supply to bone, bony necrosis in the hip and shoulder

Avascular necrosis

127

What condition is associated with arrested bone development, bone softening

Fibrous dysplasia

128

Condition associated with fibrous dysplasia of multiple bones, cafe-au-lait spots

McCune-Albright syndome

129

Malignant bone cancer in adolescence. Often on the femur and pelvis and has an onion skinning appearance

Ewing sarcoma

130

What is caused when bone marrow become infected with S.Aureus or TB

Osteomyelitis

131

What disease has pronounced ankylosis on the anterior segment of vertebral bodies, has a melted candle wax appearance

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

132

What is a benign bone tumor, in the central nidus. Pain at night that is releaved with asprin

Osteroid osteoma

133

Malignant bone tumor of adolescents, forms a codman triangle in the metaphyseal regionlong bones, common around knee.

Osteosarcoma

134

Benign large cartilage-capped outgrowth on the metaphysis of bone. Common in males, and around the knee

Osteochondroma

135

What is the name for the disease where someone has several osteochondromas

Multiple hereditary exostosis

136

Bening cartilage tumor, almost always in hands

Enchondroma

137

What is the name of the disease when someone has multiple enchondromas of the hand

Ollier disease

138

Malignangt cartilage tumor inside medullary cavity of the pelvis or shoulder, common in males. May expand into surrounding tissue

Chondrosarcoma

139

Fibroblastic growth gene mutation causing shortening of long bones, frontal bossing, bullet vertebra

Achondroplasia

140

Brittle bone disease due to abnormal Type I collagen, weak bones and joints. Possible hearing loss

osteogenesis imperfecta

141

Stone bone, due to dysfunctional osteoclast causing marrow to fill. Causes Fractures, Cranial nerve palsies, erlenmeyer flask deformities

Osteopetrosis

142

Degenerative joint disease due to altered articular cartilage, age related

Osteoarthritis

143

Abnormal purine metabolism causing uric acid crystals in synovium. Common in hallux

Gout

144

Calcified tendons, hydroxyapatite deposition into tendons, Idiopathic. Common in rotator cuff muscles

Hydroxyapatitie deposition disease

145

Phosphate deposition in cartilage often in the knee or wrist. Often called pseudogout

Calcium pyrophosphate deposition

146

Arthrytis caused by Borrelia burgdoferi (lyme disease)

Lyme arthritis

147

Name for aggressive skeletal muscle cancer

Rhabdomyosarcoma

148

malignant smooth muscle tumor

Leiomyosarcoma

149

Benign smooth muscle tumor

Leiomyoma

150

Soft tissue calcification of hands

Scleroderma

151

Cerebral ischemia results in infarction of brain tissue

Stroke

152

Rupture of saccular aneurysm

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

153

Auto immune demyelinating disease, multiple white matter plaques in brain and cord. Causes accumulation of neurological defects

Multiple sclerosis

154

Loss of spinal cord lower motor neurons damage, muscle atrophy, hyperreflexia. Death due to respiratory paralysis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
aka Lou Gehrigh disease

155

Most common cause of dementia in elderly, idiopathic. B-amyloid plaque and tau proteins deposition

Alzheimer disease

156

damage to dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra. Lewy body inclusion. "pill-rolling tremor"

Parkinson disease

157

Bilateral vestibular schwannomas, vision and hearing loss

Neurofibromatosis type II

158

Autosomal dominant, widespread cerebral degeneration of Caudate nucleus. Severe demntia, chorea (jerky movement)

Huntington disease

159

cysts within the spinal cord

Syringomyelia

160

Wide spread white matter damage. commonly from a motor vehicle accident

Diffuse axonal injury

161

Demyelination due to schwann cell or myelin cell damage

Neuropathy

162

Diffuse neuropathy, stocking-and-glove paresthesia

Polyneuropathy

163

Most common cause of peripheral neuropathy, leads to foot ulceration and gangrenous necrosis

Diabetic neuropathy

164

Cutaneous neurofibromas, Cafe au lait spots

neurofibromatosis type 1

165

Autoantibodies block postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Ptosis, diplopia, Thymic hyperplasia

Myasthenia gravis

166

Autoantibodies inhibi presynaptic calcium channels which reduce acetylcholine into synaptic cleft, muscle weakness which improves with activity

Lambert-eaton syndrome

167

Chronic idiopathic demyelinization polyneuropathy, ascending paralysis, death once it progresses into respiratory muscles

Guillain-Barre syndrome

168

Reactive proliferation of schwann cells to trauma on hands and feet

Traumatic neuroma

169

Dystrophin gene mutation, pelvic girdle weakness. Evedent at age 5, leathal by 20.

Pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

170

Dystrophin gene mutation, evedent in adolescence, variable prognosis

Becker muscular dystrophy

171

Plaques cause hardening of arteries, greates impact in large muscular arteries, increase risk of thrombosis

Atherosclerosis

172

What percent of hypertension cases are "essential hypertension" (idiopathic/ Familial history)

95%

173

Hole between the left and right venricles, most common heart defect

Ventricular septal defect

174

Hole between the left and right atria, patent foramen ovale

Atrial septal defect

175

Most common cause of cyanosis at birth, large VSD, Right ventricle hypertrophy

Tetralogy of fallot

176

Narrowing of aortic arch, upper extremity hypertension, lower extremity claudication

Coarctation of the aorta

177

Reversal of the aorta and pulmonary artery cyanosis

Transposition of the great vessels

178

Heart problem that is the result of dysfunctional systole (contraction), diastole (relaxation) or valve dysfunction. Most common cause of pleural effusion

Congestive heart failure

179

Concentric enlargment of the left ventricle

Ventricular hypertrophy (pathologic)

180

eccentric enlargment of the left ventricle

Ventricular hypertrophy (non pathologic/Athletes)

181

Dilation of all chambers of the heart, can cause heart failure

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

182

Genetic mutation where the heart muscle is hypercontractile, may cause sudden cardiac death

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

183

Stiff myocardium, caused by nutritional deficiency or helminth infection

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

184

Heart attack, death of cardiac myocytes due to ischemia. Left arm pain. Females present with stomach ach

Myocardial infarction

185

Sharp substernal chest pain, "crushing' worse with activity. At leastt 70% occlusion of coronary artery

Angina

186

Type of angina that is becoming more intense and more frequent

Unstable angina

187

Pericardial sac becomes inflamed

pericarditis

188

Right side heart failure resulting from pulmonary pathology

Core pulmonale

189

Vasoconstriction of hands, pallor, cyanosis. Secondary to atherosclerosis

Raynaud phenomenon

190

Most common vasculitis in elderly, temporal region leading to vision loss headach and fever

Temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis)

191

Idiopathic inflammation of small arteries, avoids pulmonary vessels. Fatal if untreated

Poly arteritis nodosa

192

Most common vasculitis among children, attack coronary arteries. Strawberry tongue

Kawasaki disease

193

Inflammation of medium-size arteries of hands and feet. strong association with cigarette smoking

Thromboangiitis obliterans

194

Punched out defect in stomach, commonly caused by NSAIDS and H.pylori infections

Peptic ulcers

195

2nd most common cause of death, Adenocarcinomas are most common. Often diagnosed in the late stages. Due to a high fat diet that lack fiber.

Colorectal cancer

196

Out pouching in colon, often in older adults.

Diverticulosis

197

Inflammation of distal colorectal region, pesudopolyps, bloody stool, relieved by smoking

Ulcerative colitis

198

inflammation throughout GI tract, Skip lesions, strictures

Crohn disease

199

No bowel inflammation but there is dysfunction presentt

Irritable bowel syndrome

200

Gluten-sensitivity, non-infectious, inability to metabolize gliadin, Loss of brush boarder enzyme in SI.

Celiac disease

201

Idiopathic malabsorption in tropics, diarrhea

Tropical sprue

202

rice water stool, Lethal dehydration

Cholera

203

Most common nosocomial infection, intestinal pseudomembranes

Pseudomembranous colitis (clostridium difficile)

204

Protrusion of stomach through diaphragm

Hiatal hernia

205

weakness in abdominal wall, allows for GI protrusion

Bowel herniation

206

Squamous cell metaplasia, chronic GERD, males

Barrett Esophagus

207

Congenital mega colon, lack of neural ganglia in rectum

Hirschsprung disease

208

Collapsed lung, Compression, Contraction

Atelectasis

209

Air accumulaion within the pleural cavity

pneumothorax

210

What is the common cause of lobar pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae

211

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, green sputum, rapid onset

Community-acquired acute pneumonia

212

Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection of lungs, not typical symptoms of pneumonia

Community-acquired atypical Pneumonia

213

Permanent destruction of alveolar septa, inflammation, associated with smoking. Barrel chest, "pink puffer"

Emphysema

214

Bronchial inflammation, obstructive airway disease, productive cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years

Chronic bronchitis

215

Combination of Emphysema and chronic bronchitis

COPD

216

Necrotizing infection of bronchi, tissue destruction, purulent sputum

Bronchiectasis

217

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Caseating granuloma development, upper lung fields (cavitation), Pott disease

TB

218

Multisystemic inflammation, noncaseating granuloma in lungs, common amoung non-smokers, skin lesions

Sarcoidosis

219

Autoimmune diffuse alveolar hemorrhage syndrome affecting lungs and kidneys

Goodpasture syndrome

220

Diffuse alveolar capillary and epithelial damage, severe trauma and sepsis, rapid onset

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

221

Deep vein thrombosis dislodges and stops in pulmonary artery capillaries may be lethal if larg enough

Pulmonary embolism

222

Increased pulmonary vessel blood pressure, results in vessel destruction or obstruction. Chroming interstitial lung disease

Pulmonary hypertension

223

Cancer with a strong association with smoking, develop from bronchial epithelial cells

Lung cancer

224

inspiration of asbestos is strongest risk, lesion of pleural cavity, lethal

Malignant mesothelioma

225

what causes non cancerous genetal warts

HPV 6, 11

226

What causes Cancerous genetal warts

HPV 16, 18

227

Failure for testicles to descend into scrotum

Cryptorchildism

228

Swollen + twisting of testicles

Testicular torsion

229

Painless non translucent mass on testicles

Testicular cancer

230

inflammation of prostate, commonly caused by E.coli

Prostatitis

231

enlargment of the prostate in the peripheral zone, eaily palpable

Prostate cancer

232

White plaque and thinning of epidermis of vulva

Lichen sclerosis

233

Epithelial hyperplasia of vulva

Lichen simplex chronicus

234

Inflammation, white discharge from vagina (common)

Vaginitis caused by Candida albicans

235

Inflammation, green discharge from vagina

Vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis

236

HPV 16/18 infection of cervix, caused by early intercourse and multiple partners

Carvical cancer

237

Endometrial inflammation

Endometritis

238

Endometrial inflammation, often extends endoetrial tissue into cervix and fallopian tubes, but can go throughout body

Endometriosis

239

Benign uterine fibroids. Very common, menorrhagia

Leiomyoma

240

Malignancy of uterus, common in postmenopausal women, may metastisize to lungs

leiomyosarcoma

241

Fallopian tube inflammation

Salpingitis

242

Firm mass on breast tissue

breast cancer

243

Hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy

Preeclampsia

244

Progression of preeclampsia. Cause seizures

Eclampsia

245

Increased long bone growth in children due to growth hormone/pituitary adenoma

Gigantism

246

Increased size of hands and fee, mandible, macroglossia, lethal cardiomegaly in adults due to growth hormone/pituitary adenoma

Acromegaly

247

Growth hormone deficiency due to a loss of the pituitary gland

Pituitary dwarfism

248

Hyperfunctioning thyroid gland, insomnia, wt loss, fatigue, rapid heat beat, Common amoung females

Graves disease

249

Reduced metabolic rate, weight gain, cold, intolerant, depression, reduced T3 & T4

Hypothyroidism

250

Hypothyroidism in children, iodine deficiency, abnormal facial bone development

Cretinism

251

Hypothyroidisms in adolescens, mental sluggishness, obease

Myxemia

252

Autoimmune hypothyroidism, goiter, wt gain, older females

Hasimoto's thyroiditis

253

Parathyroid adenoma, Salt-and-pepper skull, brown tumor, painful bones, renal stones

Hyperparathyroidism

254

Autoimmune disease (insulin dependent) destruction of panreatic cells

Type 1 diabetes

255

Insulin resistant diabetes associated with obesity (reversible)

Type 2 diabetes

256

Deficiency of ADH production by pituitary gland or insensitivity of the kidney to ADH. Excessive thirst, no glucose in urine

Diabetes insipidus

257

Inflammation of pancreas caused by gallstones or trauma, medical emergency (reversible)

Acute Pancreatitis

258

inflammation of pancreas causing irreversible parenchymal damage and fibrosis from chronic alcoholism

Chronic pancreatitis

259

Autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex, hyperpigmentation of skin, hypotension

Addisons disease

260

Pituitary adenoma from exogenous corticosteroid therapy, wt gain (moon faces, Buffalo hump)

Cushing syndrome (hypercortisolism)

261

Most common cause of anemia

Iron deficiency

262

Wha type of anemia is due to chronic inflammation and is common amoung hospitalized patients

Anemia of chronic disease

263

Unstable red blood cell membrane due to unpaired Alpha globin molecules. Causes skeletal deformities (hair on end skull)

beta-Thalassemia

264

Unstable red blood cell membrane due to unpaired beta globin molecules

Alpha globin

265

What can cause macrocytic anemia

Folate deficiency anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

266

Type of anemia in which myeloid stem cells are suppressed and fail to produce RBC

Acute blood loss

267

RBC membrane mutation that caused them to be spherical

Hereditary spherocytosis

268

X-linked disorder where there is a failure to protect RBCs against oxidation (infection+NSAIDs)

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

269

What antibodies are associated with immune hemolytic anemia (warm)

IgG

270

What antibodies are associated with immune hemolytic anemia (cold)

IgM

271

Increased red blood cell mass due to autonomous production, normal erythropoietin. Overexpression of myeloid stem cells. JAK2 gene mutation.

Polycythemia vera

272

EBV infection, fever, splenomegaly, lymphadenitis

Mono

273

Bartonella henselae infection

Cat-scratch fever

274

Lymphoma with punched out lesions, Bence-jones proteins, Invasive

Multiple myeloma

275

Lymphoma, common in children starry sky histology, rapid facial of mandible

Burkitt lyphoma

276

Most common lymphoma of adults,

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

277

Variable aggressiveness, lymph nodes have a nodular (follicular) pattern

Follicular lymphoma

278

Most common leukemia of adults, insidious onset

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

279

Aggressive, rapid onset, T cells and B cells, Common in children

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

280

Lymphoma with predictable metastasis, Reed-Sternberg cells

Infectious mononucleosis

281

Anaplastic myeloid cell, aggressive, replace bone marrow and suppress hematopoiesis

Acute myelogenous leukemia

282

disordered hematopoieses, Pancytopenia, may transform into acute myelogenous leukemia

Myelodysplastic leukemia

283

Myelogenous Leukemia associated with the philadelphia chromosome

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

284

Diffuse marrow fibrosis, Extramedullary hematopoiesis

Primary myelofibrosis

285

Birbeck granules, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy

Langerhans cell histiocytes

286

Massive tissue injury, widespread clotting, Very lethat

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

287

Bleeding gums, abnormal Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand disease

288

Mutation of coagulation factor VIII, X-linked recessive

Hemophilia A

289

Mutated coagulation factor IX mutation, X-linked recessive

Hemophilia B

290

Increase permeability of glomeruli causing massive proteinuria

Nephrotic syndrome

291

Most commonly from a bacterial urinary tract infection

Pyelonephritis

292

Genetic disease that results in massive cysts to develop within the kidney

Polycyctic kidney disease

293

Most common cancer of the kidney

Renal cell carcinoma

294

Common childhood cancer of the kidney

Wilms tumor