Pathology Week 2 cell injury and cell death Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology Week 2 cell injury and cell death Deck (96):
1

Disease

impairment of the normal state of the living body that modifys or disrupts vital functions, has distinguishing signs and symptions and is a response to compinations of factors

2

homeostasis

ability of organism/cell to seek and maintain conditon of equilibrium and stability within its internal environment even with external changes

3

morbidity

diseasde state or symptom

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mortality

the state or condtion of being subject to deathd

5

iatrogenic

doctor caused disease

6

idiopathic

disease or conditon whos cause is unknow or arrives spontandously

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symptoms

Subjective - what the patient says they are experiencing

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signs

objective - what the Dr can see is experiencing

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illness

unhealthy condition of body or mind

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etiology

cause of dieases, geneitc or acquired

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pathogenesis

temopral sequence and patterns of cellular injury that lead to disease

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morphology

gross and microscopic changes of diseased tissue

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functional derangments

morphologic changes , cellular adaptations

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syndrome

group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a particular abnormality or condition

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clinical signifigance

signs and symptioms, disease course, prognosis

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Eosin

stain - turn cytopasm, RBC and collagen pink or red

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Hematoxylin

Stain - turns nuclei, bacteria and other stuff blue

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Congo red stain

Stains amyloid pink to red but after shining polarized light on it it turns apple green.

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amyloid

proteins

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two types of cell death

necrosis and apoptosis

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What is the clean type of cell death?

apoptosis - its programed cell death

22

What is the most common cause of cell injury?

Hypoxia

23

How do infections cause injury?

direct infection, toxins, host inflammatory responses

24

Two types of immunologic reactions?

Hypersensitivity reactions and autoimmune diesases

25

What is a congenital disorder?

inborn error of metabolism and genetic disorders

26

name 4 non physical causes of cell injury

Hypoxia, infection, congenital disorder, immunologic reactions.

27

What is cloudy swelling of cell?

intracellular proteins accumulate in serum with cellular degeneration, can lead to irreversible damage

28

What accumulates in cloudy sweling of liver degeneration?

AST, ALT, ferritin, AP and GGT

29

Wat accumulates in cloudy swelling of heart muscle degeneration?

CK-MB, LDH and Troponin T

30

Name 5 physica forms of cell injury.

trauma, burns, frostbite, radiation, pressure changes

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Name 3 nutritional or vitamin imbalance/defidiency causes of cellular injury.

Marasmus and kwashiorkor and anorexia

32

What is marasmus?

decrease in total caloric intake - skeleton

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What is kwashiorkor?

decrease in total protein intake - stomach edema

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Excessive caloric intake causes of cellular injury

obesity, atherosclerosis

35

Vit A defidiency causes?

squamous metaplasia, immune defiency, night blindness

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Vit C

scurvy

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Vit D

rickets and osteomalacia

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Vit K

bleeding and diathesis

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Vit B12

megaloblastic anemia, neuropathy, spinal cord degeneration

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Folate

megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects

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niacin

ellagra - ddd diarrhea, dermatitis dementia and death

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Stages if cellular responses to injury

Adaptation, reversible injury, irreversible injury and cell death

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when would cloudy swelling appear?

when cells are incapable of maintaining ionic and fluid homeostasis

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what does decreased ATP and Na pump activity lead too?

Na and water accumulation intracellulary, leading to isomotic gain of water

45

What does cell response to injury depend on, 6 things

type, duration, pattern, severity, intensity of injury, type of cell, metabolic state, and cells ability to adapt.

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what parts of cell are suceptible to injury?

DNA, ATP production, dell membranes, protein synthesis.

47

comorbidity

simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient

48

self limiting diesease

diesase process that resolves spontaneously with or without specific treatment.

49

list five thing to get improve health

remove obstacles to health, stimulate vis, strenghten weakened symptoms, correct structural integrity, use natural substances to restore and regenerate

50

Prussian blue

iron

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congo red stain

amyloid

52

gram stain

bacteria

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trichrome

cells and ct

54

What are the two most common causes of ischemia?

cardiopulmonary failure and anemia, decreased oxygen carrying capacity

55

What mechanisms can cause cell injury?

Oxygen derived free radicals

56

What do ROS do to cells?

damage DNA, membranes, proteins, lipids

57

what can make mitochondria highly permeable?

disfunction that causes decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and a decrease in ATP

58

What is bad about permeable mitochondria?

Cytocrome C is releases that is a trigger for apoptosis

59

Upon cell damage, mitochondria and ER release Calcium, why is this bad?

actavates protein kinases, phospholipases, endonucleases and proteases that cause further damage

60

what does and endonuclease do?

cause DNA damage

61

What tells you whether a cell has died?

the nuclei

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What are the three nuclear changes that are irreversable?

pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis

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Pyknosis

degeneration and condensation of nuclear chromatin

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karyorrhexis

nucleus breaks into fragments

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karyolysis

the nucleus fragmens dissolve, the cell Is dead

66

What is the most common form of necrosis?

coagulative necrosis

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where is coagulative necrosis common?

liver, heart, kidney

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what is coagulative necrosis

denaturing and coagulation of proteins in cytoplasm

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what causes liquefaction necrosis?

Autolysis of proteolytic enzymes, cell destruction via hydrolytic enzymes

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where is liquefaction necrosis found?

brain infarcts, pancreatic necrosis

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caseous necrosis is a combination of what?

Caseous necrosis is a combination of coagulation and liquifaction necrosis

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what does caseous necrosis look like?

cottage cheese like, soft, friable

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in what diseases would you find caseous necrosis?

granulomatous diseases like TB

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what causes Fat necrosis?

lipases that are acting on adipocytes

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What does fat necrosis look like?

chalky white

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Fibrinoid necrosis?

Necrotic connective tissue that resembles fibrin and has an eosinophilic pattern in pink

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what often causes fibrinoid necrosis?

acute immunologic injury like a hypesensitivity reaction

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What is a general term for dead tissue?

gangrenous necrosis

79

Three types of gangrene?

Wet , Dry and Gas

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What gangrenes micro appearance is coagulative necrosis?

Dry gangrene

81

What gangrene is causes by a bacteria?

Gas gangrene is specific to clostridium perfringens

82

What is the appearance of Wet gangrene?

liquefactive necrosis

83

What is the cell death type that does not have inflammatory response?

apoptosis - its programed cell death

84

what regulates apoptosis?

genes, and it ususally only affects single cells

85

Importain about apoptosis?

programed, genes, blebing, no inflammation

86

what type of cell death is essential for cancer cures?

apoptosis - its programed cell death

87

what would stimulate apoptosis?

cell and DNA damage, signal, FAS binding, TNF to TNFR1

88

two genes that regulate apoptosis

bcl-2 inhibitory, P-53 stimulatory

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How does bcl-2 inhibit apoptosis

by preventing cytocrome from mitochondria

90

How does p-53 stimulate cell death?

it gets elevated by DNA injury and arrests the cell cycle

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What gene arrests the cell cycle?

p-53

92

to paths to apoptosis

intrinsis - mitochondrial and extrinsic- receptor mediated with FAS and TNF

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What is physiologic apoptosis?

embryonic development, separating of fingers

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Pathologic apoptosis?

viral disease, graft vs host

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When apoptosis begins what cascade mediates it?

Cascate of caspases that digest nuclear and other proteins

96

What can make you suceptibel to apoptosis

everything from emotional states to air, water, sleep, exercise rest