Dx: Congenital malformation of the abdominal wall, leads to exposure of abdominal contents
Dx: Persistent herniation of the bowel into the umbilical cord; Failure of herniated intestines to return to the body cavity during development;
Omphalocele Covered by peritoneum and amnion (how you can tell the difference between omphalocele and gastroschisis)
Dx: Congenital hypertrophy of pyloric smooth muscle; Projectile vomiting; Visible peristalsis; Olive-like mass in abdomen More common in males
What is the treatment for pyloric stenosis?
Dx: Acidic damage to mucosa due to imbalances between mucosal defenses and acidic environment
A Cushing ulcer (increased intracranial pressure) is a risk factor for:
Acute gastritis Cushing ulcer (increased intracranial pressure) --> increased vagal stimulation
Chronic gastritis is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type 4 T-cell mediated damage antibodies against parietal cells or intrinsic factor
Chronic gastritis involved what parts of the stomach?
Body and fundus if autoimmune (antrum if H. pylori) Knocking out parietal cells --> knocking out the ability to produce acid
Chronic gastritis is the most common cause of:
Pernicious anemia (B12 deficiency)
Patients with autoimmune chronic gastritis are at increased risk for
Gastric adenocarcinoma (from intestinal metaplasia)
Patients with H. Pylori chronic gastritis are at increased risk for what 3 things?
1. ulceration 2. gastric adenocarcinoma 3. MALT lymphoma
ZE syndrome causes:
Dx: Epigastric pain that worsens with meals
Gastric ulcer usually located on the lesser curvature of the antrum
T/F: Duodenal ulcers are almost never malignant.
What makes a gastric ulcer benign?
Small; punched out appearance; No heaping of mucosa around it or inflammation
What makes a gastric ulcer malignant?
Piling up of mucosa around the ulcer; large; irregular border
Nitrosamines, present in smoked foods, help explain the increased incidence of:
Gastric cancer (in Japan)
Dx: Signet ring cells infiltrate gastric wall; Linitis plastica; Not associated with H. Pylori, intestinal metaplasia or nitrosamines
Diffuse type of gastric cancer NO ulcers, instead diffusely thickened wall of stomach
Where does gastric cancer commonly spread?
Left supraclavicular node (Virchow node)
What is a Sister Mary Joseph nodule?
Distant metastasis of intestinal type of gastric carcinoma at the periumbilical region
A Krukenberg tumor is commonly seen with what cancer?
Diffuse type of gastric carcinoma distant metastases are bilateral ovaries