Pathoma 11.3 Liver Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathoma 11.3 Liver Deck (23):
1

The fibrosis found in cirrhosis is mediated by:

TGF-beta from stellate cells

2

Where are stellate cells found in the liver?

Beneath the endothelial cells that line the sinusoids

3

What are Mallory bodies and when are they seen?

Mallory bodies are damaged IFs within the hepatocytes and they are seen in alcoholic hepatitis

4

What lab values are commonly seen in alcoholic hepatitis?

AST > ALT

5

What lab values are commonly seen in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

ALT > AST

6

Dx: Excess body iron leads to deposition in the tissues and organ damage; Damage is mediated by generation of free radicals

Hemochomatosis May be primary or secondary Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinomina

7

What is the most common genetic mutation associated with Primary Hemochromatosis?

HFE gene - C282Y

8

Dx: Cirrhosis Secondary DM Bronze skin

Hemochromatosis

9

Dx: Cirrhosis Neurological manifestations Kayser-Fleisher rings on cornea; Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Wilson disease

10

What is the treatment for Wilson disease?

D-penicillamine

11

Dx: Autoimmune, granulomatous destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts; Antimitochondrial antibody seen in labwork

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

12

Decreased serum ceruloplasmin suggests what diagnosis?

Wilson disease

13

Dx: Inflammation and fibrosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts; Periductal fibrosis with an onion-skin appearance; Beaded appearance on imaging

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patients present with obstructive jaundice

14

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis is associated with what other autoimmune disorder?

Ulcerative colitis

15

What lab test is often seen in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis?

Positive p-ANCA

16

Dx: Fulminant liver failure and encephalopathy; Children; Previous viral infection treated with aspirin

Reye Syndrome

17

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis carries increased risk for what cancer?

Cholangiocarcinoma (bile ducts)

18

How do children with Reye syndrome present?

Hypoglycemia; Elevated liver enzymes; Nausea and vomiting

19

Dx: Hepatic tumor of hepatocytes; Associated with oral contraceptive use - regresses when drug is stopped; Risk of rupture and intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially during pregnancy

Hepatic adenoma

20

Aflatoxins from Aspergillus raise the risk for:

Hepatocellular carcinoma Aflatoxins induce p53 mutations

21

Dx: Liver infarction due to hepatic vein obstruction; Painful hepatomegaly and ascites

Budd-Chiari syndrome

22

What is a common cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

23

What is the serum tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma?

Alpha fetoprotein