Pathophysiology of the Gall Bladder and Biliary Tree Flashcards Preview

MS2 - Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Pathophysiology of the Gall Bladder and Biliary Tree > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathophysiology of the Gall Bladder and Biliary Tree Deck (20):
1

What are the two functions of the gallbladder?

- Store bile made by the liver
- Contract to deliver bile to the duodenum after a fatty meal

2

Gallstones almost always develop in the ____________.

gallbladder

3

What are gallstones most commonly composed of?

Cholesterol

There are also brown stones, which indicate infection.

4

Describe the differences between the consistencies of cholesterol gallstones and pigment stones.

Cholesterol: like toothpaste
Pigment: brittle

5

What are the five Fs of gallstone risk factors?

Fat
Forty
Female
Fertile (estrogen use)
Family history

6

An overweight, Hispanic female presents to your office with complaints of intermittent pain – particularly after fatty meals – that lasts for about five hours. What is the cause?

Movement of gallstones through the cystic duct and common hepatic duct

7

How would you treat biliary colic?

Remove the gallbladder

8

What causes cholecystitis?

There can be calculous and acalculous causes.

Calculous: duct is blocked by stone, gallbladder gets infected

Acalculous: usually ischemia (from sepsis, surgery, trauma, vasculitis, or hypotension)

9

What distinguishes choledocholithiasis from calculous cholecystitis?

Choledocholithiasis is a stone in the common bile duct – meaning it blocks the liver, too. Patients will have jaundice.

10

Bacterial infection of the bile duct is called ____________.

ascending cholangitis (almost always due to choledocholithiasis)

11

A patient comes in with RUQ pain, fever, jaundice – (Charcot's triad) – hypotension, and altered mental status – (Reynold's pentad). What procedure will they likely need?

Urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

12

What transaminase pattern will be found in someone with biliary stricture?

ALTs greater than ASTs

13

Cholangiocarcinoma is ___________.

adenocarcinoma of the bile duct

14

Why do you need to regularly monitor patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis?

Because PSC increases risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma

15

Pigment stones are primarily composed of ___________.

bilirubin

16

Which kind of stones develop in the bile duct?

Brown stones

17

What is biliary colic?

Pain resulting from irritation of the bile duct, usually due to passage of stones

18

What is Mirizzi's syndrome?

An occlusion of the cystic duct that leads to regional edema that causes blockage of the hepatic duct, as well

19

How are biliary strictures treated?

ERGP with dilation
Biopsy for suspected malignancy

20

Describe sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

The SOD doesn't open as much as it should or when it should, leading to symptoms that mimic choledocholithiasis. More common in women. Symptoms are intermittent.

Decks in MS2 - Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems Class (133):