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Flashcards in Pathpharm week 1 Deck (94):
1

Define Pathology:

Study of disease and abnormality

2

Define Pathophysiology:

Study of body function in the diseased or abnormal state

3

What is etiology?

The origin of a disease

4

Give examples of etiology:

genetics, aging, environment, infectious, traumatic, congenital

5

What is pathogenesis?

the manner of development of a disease, the "how" the disease develops, can be on a cellular level

6

What are manifestations?

The clinical features of a disease-signs and symptoms of a disease

7

Give examples of some manifestations:

morphology, subclinical, signs/symptoms, lesions, complications/sequela, resolution

8

What is a symptom of a disease?

subjective, what the patient experiences about the illness/disease. Cannot be measured or observed.

9

What is a sign of a disease?

Objective, physical manifestation of the illness that can be observed and measured.

10

Give an example of a symptom:

pain level

11

Give an example of a sign:

A person with hypertension has a bp of 140/90

12

Describe the development of the disease pneumonia:

Etiology: bacteria or virus Pathogenesis: bacteria duplicates and eventually compromises the exchange between oxygen and co2 Manifestations: fluid in lungs, coughing, sputum, etc.

13

Define Morphology:

What cells look like

14

Define subclinical:

term used to describe signs and symptoms of a disease a patient does not know they have

15

Give an example of subclinical findings:

Pt comes in complaining of frequent headaches and attributes them to stress. However, pt is unaware he/she has hypertension, which is the real cause of the headaches

16

Define complications:

The continuation of an illness

17

Give an example of a complication:

phenomena is a complication of a flu, infection is a complication of a cut

18

What is a sequela of a disease?

A more permanent complication a pt may not recover from

19

Give an example of a sequela:

if a pt gets frost bite and needs to have a limb removed, that would be a permanent complication of the frostbite

20

Define Resolution:

After treatment disease completely goes away and resolves

21

Define Drug in the medical, theraputic sense:

a substance taken to prevent, cure, or reduce symptoms of a medical condition

22

Define drug in a broad sense:

a chemical that interacts with a living organism to produce a biologic response

23

T or F: Once taken, a drug changes what is biologically happening in the body

FALSE: Drugs cannot change what is happening, they simply modifies and re-routes the pain response

24

Around how many documented Rx's are prescribed each year in the US?

over 3 billion

25

In 1997 this was passed which created a fast track approval system for drugs treating AIDS, cancer, and other life threatening conditions

The FDA Modernizing Act

26

Before the FDA Modernizing act how long could it take for a drug to get approved? How did the act change this?

before it could take up to 30 months, the act reduced this time to 15 months

27

Which agency is responsibe for ensuring the safety of drugs and medical devices?

The FDA

28

Define "scheduled drugs"

Drugs with a high potential for dependence or abuse

29

Define "OTC drugs"

"Over The Counter" drugs, do not require an Rx

30

List the 4 different names a drug can have:

chemical, generic, international, trade

31

What is a drug's chemical name?

describes the chemical composition of the drug and is assigned using the standard nomenclature established by the IUPAC-a drug has only ONE chemical name

32

What is a drug's generic name?

less complicated and easier to remember than the chemical name. Each drug has ONE generic name in the USA, can have a different international generic name.

33

What is a drug's trade name?

assigned by the company marketing the drug. "brand" name. Each drug may have SEVERAL trade names.

34

N-acetyl-para-aminophenol is an example of a ______________ name

chemical

35

Tylenol is an example of a ___________ name

trade

36

acetaminophen (USA) or paracetamol (IN) are examples of ____________ names

generic

37

Define pharmacology:

the study of substances that interact with living organisms to produce a biologic response

38

List the 4 principles of pharmacology:

1. pharmaceutical 2. pharmacokinetic 3. pharmacodynamic 4. pharmacotherapeutics

39

Define pharmaceutical:

refers to a group of interdisciplinary studies of a drug

40

Define pharmacokinetic:

how the BODY reacts TO the DRUG/ how the drug moves through the body *kinetic-body moves-how the body effects the drug

41

Define Pharmacodynamic:

the effect of the drug on the body **dynamic=the body can produce a dynamic range of effects on the body

42

Define absorption:

the reate at which a drug leaves its original site (sie of administration)

43

Define distibution:

the transfer of the drug throughout the body

44

What are some things that can hinder drug distribution?

the blood-brain barrier, fat soluable, protein binding

45

Define metabolism as it relates to a drug:

The biochemical transformation of the drug-how it is broken down

46

Which organ is especially important for drug metabolism?

The liver

47

Define excretion as it relates to drugs:

how the drug leaves the body

48

What is the primary organ involved in drug excretion?

The kidney, but intestinal tract and liver also play a role

49

Absorption, distribution, metabolsim and excretion are all examples of drug__________

pharmacokinetics

50

The mechanism of action, effects, and drug receptor interaction are all pieces of ____________

pharmacodynamics

51

What are side effects?

Effects of a drug other than what is targeted. Can be positive or negative.

52

What are adverse effects?

Refers to negative effects of a drug, can be fatal, not good!

53

What does drug receptor interation refer to?

In order for a drug to work, it must fit into the proper receptor site on a cell-if not it will not bind, and will not work

54

What is a patient's functional state?

Refers to the state of the patient BEFORE medication is administered

55

What does pharmacotheraputics refer to?

the effectiveness and safety of a drug

56

What is a dose response?

The pt's response to a certain drug dose-varies from pt to pt and can depend on what disease state/stage they are in

57

A thereaputic range refers to:

The lowest and highest levels of a drug in the blood

58

Define peak:

The highest level of a drug in the blood

59

Define trough:

The lowest level of a drug in the blood

60

Define subtheraputic:

A dose of a medication too low to have a theraputic effect on the pt

61

Define lethal dose:

A dose of a drug that is too high, can be fatal

62

Define drug 1/2 life:

The time required for drug's plasma concentration to be reduced by half (time it takes for 1/2 of original dose to leave the body)

63

Define loading dose:

An initial higher dose of a drug given to a pt

64

Define maitenance dose:

dose required to keep a steady theraputic level of drug in the bloodstream

65

How many half lifes does it take to achieve a "steady state" of a drug?

4 to 5

66

What is baseline data?

pre-drug administration data for a pt

67

Being aware of the side effects of a drug and how to intervene if necessary is also called___________

stratification of risk

68

What are the 5 rights of drug administration?

Right: Patient, Drug, Dose, Route, Time

69

Cells function normally when they are in a ______________ state

homeostatic

70

Excess physiologic or pathologic stress may force cells into an ___________ state

adaptation

71

Too much stress that exceeds the cell's adaptive capacity can lead to cell ___________

injury

72

T or F: Cell injury can be reversible or irreversible.

TRUE

73

Cell death is a direct response of ___________

irreversible injury

74

Define Hypoxia:

lack of oxygen to cells

75

What is the #1 cause of cell injury?

hypoxia

76

Define necrosis:

eschemic-lack of blood flow-without blood flow cells die

77

Define atrophy:

cell is shrunken, looses its integrity and cell membrane

78

Define hypertrophy:

cell is overgrown, too large

79

Define hyperplasia:

rate of cell division has increased, and cells are bigger BAD

80

Define metaplasia:

ALWAYS bad. Cells are multiplying too fast AND changing shape

81

Define dysplasia:

cells grow disorganized, go in different directions, but still the same original shape (hyperplasia can lead to dysplasia)

82

Why do cells change?

in response to changes in environment and for protection and social control

83

Karyolysis and pyknosis are two examples of ____________

cellular injury related to the DNA/nucleus

84

Hypoxia is caused by:

low oxygen environment due to a low Hgb or RBC

85

What is a condition that can cause hypoxia?

sicle cell anemia

86

Club fingers are a classic sign of ________

chronic hypoxia

87

Define anoxia:

sudden acute total lack of oxygen caused by a sudden abstruction

88

Define progressive hypoxia:

loss of oxygen caused by gradual arterial obstruction

89

What is apoptosis?

programmed cell death, killing is quick and neat

90

T or F: Apoptosis is an active process and requires energy and protein synthesis

TRUE

91

Necrosis inside the heart appears as

coagulation

92

Necrosis inside the brain appears as

liquefaction

93

____________ is an organism that causes bubbles in gangrene

Clostirdium

94

As far as cellular damage is concerned, the goal is to:

intervene when damage is still reversible