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Flashcards in Patient Assessment Deck (82):
1

Two key sources of patient data are

the medical history and the physical examination.

2

approximately 4 to 12 feet from the patient is considered.

social space

3

2 to 4 feet from the patient is considered

personal space

4

The introduction is done in what space

Social Space

5

How should you word your questions when you conduct an interview with a patient.

Use Neutral Questions

6

What kind of questions should you avoid in a patient interview.

Leading Questions.

7

is a subjective experience and is a general term describing the sensation of breathing discomfort

Dyspnea

8

is the specific sensation of an unpleasant urge to breathe.

Breathlessness

9

Difficulty breathing in the reclining position

orthopnea

10

Dyspnea in the upright position

platypnea

11

oxygen desaturation on assuming an upright position.

orthodeoxia

12

patients with normal cardiopulmonary function complain of intense dyspnea or suffocation is known as

psychogenic hyperventilation syndrome

and is associated with panic disorders

13

the sensation of tingling and numbness in the extremities that often accompanies respiratory alkalosis

paresthesia

14

a forceful expiratory maneuver that expels mucus and foreign material from the airways

coughing

15

cough depends on the ability of the individual to

take a deep breath, lung elastic recoil, expiratory muscle strength, and level of airway resistance

16

Coughing up blood or blood-streaked sputum from the lungs

hemoptysis

17

T/F Hemoptysis is characterized as massive when more than 100 ml of blood is expectorated over 24 hours.

False, 300ml

18

vomiting blood from the gastrointestinal tract

hematemesis

19

Mucus is gradually moved to the hypopharynx by the

mucociliary escalator

20

mucus from the tracheobronchial tree that has not been contaminated by oral secretions

Phlegm

21

Mucus that comes from the lung but passes through the mouth as it is expectorated

sputum

22

Sputum that contains pus cells

purulent

23

Purulent sputum appears

thick, colored, and sticky.

24

Sputum that is foul-smelling

Fetid

25

Sputum that is clear and thick

mucoid

26

What type of chest pain usually is located laterally or posteriorly. It worsens when the patient takes a deep breath, and it is described as a sharp, stabbing type of pain

Pleuritic

27

What type of chest pain is located typically in the center of the anterior chest and may radiate to the shoulder or back. It is not affected by breathing, and it is described as a dull ache or pressure type of pain

Nonpleuritic

28

patient takes a deep breath, and it is described as a sharp, stabbing type of chest pain

Pleuritic

29

dull ache or pressure type of chest pain

Nonpleuritic

30

Fever that occurs with a cough suggests

respiratory infection.

31

Patients with a significant fever have an increases in

increased metabolic rate and an increased oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production

32

Swelling of the lower extremities

pedal edema

33

an indentation mark left on the skin Weeping edema is when a small fluid leak occurs at the point where pressure is applied.

pitting edema

34

small fluid leak occurs at the point where pressure is applied.

Weeping edema

35

The smoking history is often recorded in

pack-years

36

includes resuscitative efforts. DNI, DNR

Advanced directive

37

The physical examination consists of the following four general steps:

(1) inspection (visually examining),
(2) palpation (touching),
(3) percussion (tapping),
(4) auscultation (listening with a stethoscope).

38

touching

palpation

39

tapping

percussion

40

listening with stethoscope

auscultation

41

Weakness and emaciation

cachexia

42

sweating

Diaphoresis

43

a patient with severe pulmonary hyperinflation tends to sit upright while bracing his or her elbows on a table. This position helps the accessory muscles gain a mechanical advantage for breathing

tripodding

44

can help determine both the duration and the impact of the illness on the patient's daily activities.

personal hygiene indicators

45

observing patients level of conciousness (alertness)

sensorium

46

The patient
•Exhibits slight decrease of consciousness
•Has slow mental responses
•Has decreased or dulled perception
•Has incoherent thoughts

Confused Patient

47

The patient
•Is easily agitated
•Is irritable
•Exhibits hallucinations

Delirious Patient

48

The patient
•Is sleepy
•Arouses easily
•Responds appropriately when aroused

Lethargic Patient

49

The patient
•Awakens only with difficulty

Obtunded Patient

50

The patient
•Does not awaken completely
•Has decreased mental and physical activity
•Responds to pain and exhibits deep tendon reflexes
•Responds slowly to verbal stimuli

Stuporous patient

51

The patient
•Is unconscious
•Does not respond to stimuli
•Does not move voluntarily
•Exhibits possible signs of upper motor neuron dysfunction, such as Babinski reflex or hyperreflexia
•Loses reflexes with deep or prolonged coma

Comatose Patient

52

Temperature elevation caused by disease is called

Fever

53

Temperature elevation caused by disease is called fever, and the patient is said to be

febrile

54

The average body temperature for adults is approximately

37° C (98.6° F)

55

A body temperature below normal

hypothermia

56

The normal adult pulse rate is ____ beats/min, with a regular rhythm.

60 to 100

57

A condition in which the pulse rate exceeds 100 beats/min

tachycardia

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A condition in which the pulse rate is less than 60 beats/min

bradycardia.

59

A significant decrease in pulse strength (>10 mm Hg) during spontaneous inhalation

pulsus paradoxus, or paradoxical pulse

60

alternating succession of strong and weak pulses.

ulsus alternans

61

pressure is the peak force exerted in the major arteries during contraction of the left ventricle.

Arterial systolic

62

Generally, the normal range for systolic blood pressure in an adult is

90 to 140 mm Hg

63

what pressure is the force in the major arteries remaining after relaxation of the ventricles

Diastolic pressure

64

Diastolic pressure normal

60 to 90 mm Hg

65

the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.

Pulse pressure

66

A normal pulse pressure is

30 to 40 mm Hg.

67

arterial blood pressure persistently greater than 140/90

Hypertension

68

systolic arterial blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg or a mean arterial pressure less than 65 mm Hg mm Hg

Hypotension

69

fainting

syncope

70

is present when the jugular vein is enlarged and it can be seen more than 3 to 4 cm above the sternal angle.

Jugular venous distention (JVD)

71

The most common cause of JVD is right heart failure

cor pulmonale

72

Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis often breathe with a deep and rapid pattern

Kussmaul breathing.

73

caused by extreme negative pressure that pulls the trachea downward during inspiration

tracheal tugging

74

Contraction of a flat diaphragm tends to draw in the lateral costal margins instead of expanding them

Hoover sign

75

refers to the vibrations created by the vocal cords during speech

vocal fremitus

76

vibrations are felt on the chest wall

tactile fremitus

77

What condition causes air leaks from the lung into the subcutaneous tissues, fine air bubbles produce a crackling sound and sensation when palpated.

subcutaneous emphysema.

78

When air leaks from the lung into the subcutaneous tissues, fine air bubbles produce a crackling sound and sensation when palpated. This condition is referred to as subcutaneous emphysema. The sensation produced on palpation is called

crepitus

79

When the percussion note is louder and lower than normal, the sound is said to be increased resonance or hypertympanic

increased resonance or hypertympanic

80

Percussion may produce a sound with characteristics just the opposite of resonance, referred to as

decreased resonance, dampened, or dull.

81

passing of fresh blood through the anus.

hematochezia

82

formation of blood cells in the living body.

hematopoiesis