Flashcards in Patterns of inheritance Deck (26):
What is the locus?
The position of a gene/allele in a chromosome
What is an allele?
A variant sequence
Are humans diploid or haploid organisms?
How many copies of every gene do we carry?
Are sex cells diploid or haploid?
Are autosomes diploid or halploid?
What do the terms dilpoid and haploid refer to?
Cells, tissues or organisms
What are the basic symbols for dominance?
AA or Aa
What is the basic symbol for recessive gene?
What must be included when using the terms dominant or recessive?
What it is dominant/recessive to
What is the wild type?
That which is the most abundant in the population, e.g. agouti mice
What is meant by a mutant gene?
That which is not normally found in the population
Who was the founder of the science of genetics and when was he born/died?
Gregor Mendel 1822-1884
What is Mendel's first law?
The principle of segregation --> 2 members of a gene pair segregate from each other in the formation of gametes, the gametes end up with half the copies of the genomic information
What is Mendel's second law?
The principle of independent assortment states that the members of different gene pairs are transmitted independently of one another during gamete production.
What is wrong with Medel's second law?
Mendel didn't know that genes were transmitted in chromosomes, so alleles may segregate with one another and that recombination may occur.
What is true breeding?
Two individuals which seem identical to breed then breed offspring, become more and more homozygous
What is a pleiotropic gene?
One which can produce more than one phenotype
What are the 7 experiments Mendel looked at in plants?
1. Flower and seed coat colour
2. Seed colour
3. Seed shape
4. Pod colour
5. Pod shape
6. Stem height
7. Flower position
What is the procedure for crossing pea plants?
1. Remove stamens (female) from one phenotype and collect pollen (male) from another phenotype
2. Cross-fertilize by transferring pollen from stamen to pistil
3. Develop seeds in pod
4. Plant seeds
What is the binomial name for thale cress?
What is alternation of generations and what does it occur in?
Alternating haploid and diploid stages. Occurs in algae and fungi.
What is the bionomial name for the worm used as a model organism?
what is the binomal name for yeast?
What is the binomial name for the fruit fly?