Flashcards in P.E Ka1 Deck (57):
What are the functions of the skeleton?
Protection, support, movement, blood production, storing minerals and shape
Where does movement occur?
At the joints
What mineral do the bones store?
What are bones which meet at a joint? Give examples.
Articulating bones, e.g-
Humerus + radius
Fibula + talus
What are the 4 main bone types?
Long tubular bones
What are two bones located at the arms?
Radius and ulna
What are three bones located in the upper body?
Ribs, sternum, clavicle
What are 4 bones located in the legs?
Femur, tibia, patella, fibula
What are synovial joints and What are the 7 characteristics of them?
Freely moveable joints:
What is a ball and socket joint?
A joint that can move in all directions
What is a hinge joint?
Joints that can only move in two directions e.g knee and elbow
What are pivot joints?
Joints that only allow rotation e.g vertebrae of the neck
What are the 6 different types of joint movement?
What is flexion?
Closing the angle at a joint (bending) e.g preparing to throw a ball the angle at the elbow decreases
What is plantar flexion?
Movement at the ankle joint that points the toes and increases the angle at a joint (point foot down)
What is dorsi flexion?
Moment at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases the angle at the joint (point foot up)
What is extension?
Opening the angle at the joint (straightening) (opposite of flexion)
What is abduction?
Moving away from the centre line of the body (taking away) e.g over head clear in badminton
What is adduction?
Moving in towards the centre line of the body e.g moving (lowering) your arm towards your body
What is rotation?
The joint moves in a circular motion but does not change the angle of the joint (turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise) e.g the head rotating on the neck
What is circumduction?
Similar to rotation but it is the end of a bone which moves in a circular direction
What type of joint is at the shoulder?
Ball and socket
What type of joint is at the hip
Ball and socket joint
What type of joint is at the elbow?
What type of joint is at the wrist?
What type of joint is at the knee?
What type of joint is at the ankle
How are muscles attached to the skeleton?
What is an antagonistic pair?
When one muscle contracts and pulls while the other relaxes and vice versa. The muscle that contracts is the agonist (prime mover) and the one which relaxes is the antagonist.
What is an example of an antagonistic pair?
Tricep (relaxed/ antagonist), bicep (contracts/agonist)
What two different ways to muscles contract?
Isotonically and isometrically
What are isotonic contractions?
When the muscle changes length when it contracts, and they result in limb movement.
What can isotonic a contractions be?
Concentric or eccentric
What is concentric isotonic contractions?
Muscles contracts and shortens
What is eccentric isotonic contraction?
Muscles contracts and lengthens
What are isometric contractions?
When the muscle stays the same length. The joints are stationary
Which muscle causes flexion of the arm at the elbow?
What is tidal volume?
The volume of air your breathe in and out with each breathe
What is respiration rate/ breathing rate?
The number of times you breathe in one minute
What happens to tidal volume during exercise?
What is expiratory reserve volume?
The amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume (after normal expiration)
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
The amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume (after normal expiration)
What happens to expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory reserve volume during exercise?
They both decrease
What is vital capacity?
The maximum amount of air that can be forced out after breathing in as much air as possible
What is residual volume?
The air left in the lungs after you have breathed out at hard as possible
What happens to residual volume during exercise?
There is no change
What is the function of the respiratory system?
To bring oxygen into the body so it can be used to produce energy and enable activity
Where is carbon dioxide produced?
In the muscles during exercise
What is the purpose of the respiratory system?
To bring the air we breath into close contact with the blood so that the oxygen can be absorbed and carbon dioxide removed. The oxygen is used to release energy when are muscles are working aerobically
What happens when your breathe in air?
It enters through the nose and mouth, It then travels down the trachea which connects to the lungs. Then it passes through the bronchi and the bronchioles and into the alveoli where gaseous exchange occurs
How do we breathe?
Breathing is achieved by making the chest larger or smaller which results in a change or pressure within the lungs
What is the process of gaseous exchange?
Oxygen that has been breathed in passes through the alveoli and into the red blood cells in the capillaries. The oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin. The haemoglobin carries carbon dioxide from the body to the capillaries, the carbon dioxide in the capillaries passes through the alveoli and it breathed out
How do we measure the air capacity of the human lungs?
Through a piece of equipment called a spirometer
How do the mechanics of breathing change during exercise?
The lungs expand and contract much more as more air is inhaled to supply more oxygen to the working muscles and more air is exhaled to remove carbon dioxide
What are two features of the alveoli?
They have a large surface area and provide a moist wall for gaseous exchange to occur
Describe diffusion and the diffusion pathway
Diffusion is when a gas moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached. The distance that the molecules travel is called the diffusion pathway. The diffusion pathway is short in gaseous exchange