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Flashcards in P.E Ka1 Deck (57):
1

What are the functions of the skeleton?

Protection, support, movement, blood production, storing minerals and shape

2

Where does movement occur?

At the joints

3

What mineral do the bones store?

Calcium

4

What are bones which meet at a joint? Give examples.

Articulating bones, e.g-

Humerus + radius
Pelvis +femur
Fibula + talus

5

What are the 4 main bone types?

Long tubular bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Irregular bones

6

What are two bones located at the arms?

Radius and ulna

7

What are three bones located in the upper body?

Ribs, sternum, clavicle

8

What are 4 bones located in the legs?

Femur, tibia, patella, fibula

9

What are synovial joints and What are the 7 characteristics of them?

Freely moveable joints:

•cartilage
•joint capsule
•synovial membrane
•synovial fluid
•ligaments
•tendons
•bursae

10

What is a ball and socket joint?

A joint that can move in all directions

11

What is a hinge joint?

Joints that can only move in two directions e.g knee and elbow

12

What are pivot joints?

Joints that only allow rotation e.g vertebrae of the neck

13

What are the 6 different types of joint movement?

•flexion
•extension
•abduction
•adduction
•rotation
•circumduction

14

What is flexion?

Closing the angle at a joint (bending) e.g preparing to throw a ball the angle at the elbow decreases

15

What is plantar flexion?

Movement at the ankle joint that points the toes and increases the angle at a joint (point foot down)

16

What is dorsi flexion?

Moment at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases the angle at the joint (point foot up)

17

What is extension?

Opening the angle at the joint (straightening) (opposite of flexion)

18

What is abduction?

Moving away from the centre line of the body (taking away) e.g over head clear in badminton

19

What is adduction?

Moving in towards the centre line of the body e.g moving (lowering) your arm towards your body

20

What is rotation?

The joint moves in a circular motion but does not change the angle of the joint (turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise) e.g the head rotating on the neck

21

What is circumduction?

Similar to rotation but it is the end of a bone which moves in a circular direction

22

What type of joint is at the shoulder?

Ball and socket

23

What type of joint is at the hip

Ball and socket joint

24

What type of joint is at the elbow?

Hinge joint

25

What type of joint is at the wrist?

Hinge joint

26

What type of joint is at the knee?

Hinge joint

27

What type of joint is at the ankle

Hinge joint

28

How are muscles attached to the skeleton?

By tendons

29

What is an antagonistic pair?

When one muscle contracts and pulls while the other relaxes and vice versa. The muscle that contracts is the agonist (prime mover) and the one which relaxes is the antagonist.

30

What is an example of an antagonistic pair?

Tricep (relaxed/ antagonist), bicep (contracts/agonist)

31

What two different ways to muscles contract?

Isotonically and isometrically

32

What are isotonic contractions?

When the muscle changes length when it contracts, and they result in limb movement.

33

What can isotonic a contractions be?

Concentric or eccentric

34

What is concentric isotonic contractions?

Muscles contracts and shortens

35

What is eccentric isotonic contraction?

Muscles contracts and lengthens

36

What are isometric contractions?

When the muscle stays the same length. The joints are stationary

37

Which muscle causes flexion of the arm at the elbow?

Biceps

38

What is tidal volume?

The volume of air your breathe in and out with each breathe

39

What is respiration rate/ breathing rate?

The number of times you breathe in one minute

40

What happens to tidal volume during exercise?

It increases

41

What is expiratory reserve volume?

The amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume (after normal expiration)

42

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

The amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume (after normal expiration)

43

What happens to expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory reserve volume during exercise?

They both decrease

44

What is vital capacity?

The maximum amount of air that can be forced out after breathing in as much air as possible

45

What is residual volume?

The air left in the lungs after you have breathed out at hard as possible

46

What happens to residual volume during exercise?

There is no change

47

What is the function of the respiratory system?

To bring oxygen into the body so it can be used to produce energy and enable activity

48

Where is carbon dioxide produced?

In the muscles during exercise

49

What is the purpose of the respiratory system?

To bring the air we breath into close contact with the blood so that the oxygen can be absorbed and carbon dioxide removed. The oxygen is used to release energy when are muscles are working aerobically

50

What happens when your breathe in air?

It enters through the nose and mouth, It then travels down the trachea which connects to the lungs. Then it passes through the bronchi and the bronchioles and into the alveoli where gaseous exchange occurs

51

How do we breathe?

Breathing is achieved by making the chest larger or smaller which results in a change or pressure within the lungs

52

What is the process of gaseous exchange?

Oxygen that has been breathed in passes through the alveoli and into the red blood cells in the capillaries. The oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin. The haemoglobin carries carbon dioxide from the body to the capillaries, the carbon dioxide in the capillaries passes through the alveoli and it breathed out

53

How do we measure the air capacity of the human lungs?

Through a piece of equipment called a spirometer

54

How do the mechanics of breathing change during exercise?

The lungs expand and contract much more as more air is inhaled to supply more oxygen to the working muscles and more air is exhaled to remove carbon dioxide

55

What are two features of the alveoli?

They have a large surface area and provide a moist wall for gaseous exchange to occur

56

Describe diffusion and the diffusion pathway

Diffusion is when a gas moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached. The distance that the molecules travel is called the diffusion pathway. The diffusion pathway is short in gaseous exchange

57

What happens to the vital capacity during exercise?

It increases