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Flashcards in P.E Ka2 Deck (73):
1

What are the three main blood vessels and what are their functions?

Arteries- carry blood away from the heart.

Veins- return deoxygenated blood back to the heart

Capillaries- one cell thick. Exchange nutrients and respiratory gases occurs across their surface

2

What is the circulatory system also known as and what is it made up of?

Cardiovascular system.

Blood, blood vessels, the heart

3

What is the function of the elastic tissue in the arteries?

So they can return to shape

4

Which type of blood vessel contains valves?

Veins

5

Why are the capillaries thin walled?

To allow diffusion

6

What is the heart?

A cardiac muscle

7

What are the upper chambers of the heart called and what do they do?

The atria, collect blood from the veins

8

What are the lower chambers of the heart called and what do they do?

Ventricles, pump blood out through the arteries

9

What does the right side of the heart do?

Takes in de-oxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation

10

What does the left side of the heart do?

Takes in oxygenated blood from the lungs that was given by the right side and is then pumped into various arteries that provide oxygen and nutrients to the body by transporting the blood throughout the body

11

What is the definition of heart rate?

The number of times your heart beats in one minute. Measured in bpm

12

*label diagram of heart*

.

13

How is blood pumped around the body?

Blood travels away from the heart through arteries. Blood travels back to the heart through veins

14

What is the top loop of the blood circuit in the heart?

The top loop (pulmonary circulation) Carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart

15

What is the bottom loop of the blood circuit in the heart?

Systematic circulation- carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all over the body and the working muscles and de-oxygenated blood back to the heart

16

Describe the passage of blood through the heart

De-oxygenated blood travels through the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava into the right atrium. It then passes through a valve to the right ventricle. It then passes through the pulmonary artery and deoxygenated blood is transported to the lungs. Oxygenated blood passes through a valve into the pulmonary vein and is then pumped into the left atrium, then through a valve to the left ventricle, oxygenated blood is ejected from the heart and is transported to the body via the aorta

17

What is diastole?

When the chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood

18

What is systole?

When the chambers contract and empty, blood is ejected from the heart

19

How does blood access the lungs from the heart and vice Versa

Via the aorta

20

What happens to blood during rest as apposed to during exercise?

While at rest, the blood is directed towards the organs, but during exercise is is directed towards voluntary muscles

21

What is stroke volume?

The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction

22

What is cardiac output?

The volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute

Q = SV x HR

23

What blood vessel runs across the alveoli?

Capillaries

24

Which blood vessel pulses as blood moves through them?

Arteries

25

Which blood vessel carries deoxygenated blood?

Veins

26

Which blood vessel can gases diffuse through the walls of?

Capillaries

27

Which blood vessel does blood become oxygenated through?

Capillaries

28

Which blood vessel does CO2 diffuse into the air in the lungs through?

Capillaries

29

Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?

Veins

30

Which blood vessel contains a high blood pressure?

Arteries

31

Which blood vessels have valves, which open due to the pressure of the blood flow and then close to prevent backflow?

Veins

32

Which blood vessels carry oxygenated blood?

Arteries

33

Which blood vessels contain a low blood pressure?

Veins

34

Which blood vessels are microscopic?

Capillaries

35

Which blood vessels have a small internal diameter?

Arteries

36

Which blood vessel does not have valves?

Arteries

37

Which blood vessel has a large internal diameter?

Veins

38

Which blood vessel can vasodilate and vasoconsrict?

Arteries

39

Which blood vessels are a huge network of tiny vessels linking arteries and veins

Capillaries

40

Why does the does your heart rate increase as u exercise?

Because the heart is called on to supply more oxygen to the working muscles, therefore has to work harder. Your heart rate has to increase considerably to be able to cope with strenuous exercise

41

What is vasoconstriction?

The narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to restrict the volume of the blood traveling through it. (Constrict during exercise)

42

What is vasodilation?

The widening of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to increase the volume of blood traveling through it. Arteries dilate during exercise

43

Define the cardiac cycle

One cycle of the diastole and systole is the cardiac cycle

44

What is blood pressure?

The pressure in which the blood is under

45

What is the systolic reading and what does it measure?

Measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart contracts and ejects blood from the heart

46

What is the diastolic reading and what does it measure?

Measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart relaxes and then fills with blood

47

What is cardiac output?

The volume of the blood ejected from the heart in one minute

48

What equation would u use to identify the relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output?

Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate

49

What is the equation for cardiac output?

CO= SV x HR

50

What are the characteristics of aerobic exercise?

•over a long period of time
• not too fast
•steady
• with oxygen

51

What is the equation for aerobic exercise?

Glucose + oxygen = energy + CO2 + water

52

When are waste products such as CO2 and H2O created?

During aerobic energy when energy is being used

53

What are the characteristics of anaerobic exercise?

•High intensity
•short period of time
• powerful muscular contractions
•without oxygen

54

Why is is glucose not fully broken down during anaerobic exercise and what happens instead?

Because oxygen is not being supplied to the working muscles so CO2 and H2O are converted into lactic acid instead

55

What happens to the muscles when they fill with lactic acid?

They become painful and fatigued

56

What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?

Glucose = energy + lactic acid

57

What does EPOC stand for and what is it?

Excessive post-exercise oxygen consumption. (Oxygen debt)
Replenishes the body with oxygen and enables the body to convert lactic acid into glucose, CO2 and H2O

58

What happens to the body straight after anaerobic exercise?

The body takes in lots of oxygen to repay the oxygen debt

59

What happens to cardiac output when you exercise?

Your cardiac output increases. Your heart rate works harder to deliver oxygen to your muscles, and to carry away CO2 more quickly

60

What are the four methods or exercise recovery?

• Cooling down
•manipulation or controlling diet
•ice baths
•massage

61

What are the benefits of a cool down?

•Replenishes the working muscles with oxygen after exercise

•converts lactic acid into glucose, CO2 and H2O

•decreasing body temperature

62

What is DOMS?

Delayed on-set of muscle soreness

63

How do ice baths help prevent DOMS?

They flush lactic acid from the muscles and reduce swelling on the muscles

64

What should be included in a rehydration drink?

Sodium, carbohydrates and electrolytes

65

What factors can effect how much water you need?

Temperature, humidity, altitude

66

What do sports drinks do?

Boost glucose levels before competition, contain carbohydrates for energy,

67

Why do sports drinks contain sodium, potassium and chloride?

To maintain water balance outside the cell

68

What is carbohydrate loading?

A method that involves increasing the amount of carbohydrates eaten before an event to maximise the amount of glucose in the body so it can better the performance

69

Why is protein intake important?

Important for power athletes e.g. Weightlifters. Increases strength and speed and help with growth and repair

70

Why do we get oxygen debt?

After exercise the muscles are still full of lactic acid as they don't have enough oxygen

71

Why do the left ventricle walls have a thick layer of muscle?

Because they have to pump blood all around the body and the right side doesn't

72

What are the two phases of the cardiac cycle?

Diastole and systole

73

What are the benefits of massages?

•reduce pain in the muscles

•relieve DOMS by encouraging blood flow throughout the body