Flashcards in P.E Ka2 Deck (73):
What are the three main blood vessels and what are their functions?
Arteries- carry blood away from the heart.
Veins- return deoxygenated blood back to the heart
Capillaries- one cell thick. Exchange nutrients and respiratory gases occurs across their surface
What is the circulatory system also known as and what is it made up of?
Blood, blood vessels, the heart
What is the function of the elastic tissue in the arteries?
So they can return to shape
Which type of blood vessel contains valves?
Why are the capillaries thin walled?
To allow diffusion
What is the heart?
A cardiac muscle
What are the upper chambers of the heart called and what do they do?
The atria, collect blood from the veins
What are the lower chambers of the heart called and what do they do?
Ventricles, pump blood out through the arteries
What does the right side of the heart do?
Takes in de-oxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation
What does the left side of the heart do?
Takes in oxygenated blood from the lungs that was given by the right side and is then pumped into various arteries that provide oxygen and nutrients to the body by transporting the blood throughout the body
What is the definition of heart rate?
The number of times your heart beats in one minute. Measured in bpm
*label diagram of heart*
How is blood pumped around the body?
Blood travels away from the heart through arteries. Blood travels back to the heart through veins
What is the top loop of the blood circuit in the heart?
The top loop (pulmonary circulation) Carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart
What is the bottom loop of the blood circuit in the heart?
Systematic circulation- carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all over the body and the working muscles and de-oxygenated blood back to the heart
Describe the passage of blood through the heart
De-oxygenated blood travels through the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava into the right atrium. It then passes through a valve to the right ventricle. It then passes through the pulmonary artery and deoxygenated blood is transported to the lungs. Oxygenated blood passes through a valve into the pulmonary vein and is then pumped into the left atrium, then through a valve to the left ventricle, oxygenated blood is ejected from the heart and is transported to the body via the aorta
What is diastole?
When the chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood
What is systole?
When the chambers contract and empty, blood is ejected from the heart
How does blood access the lungs from the heart and vice Versa
Via the aorta
What happens to blood during rest as apposed to during exercise?
While at rest, the blood is directed towards the organs, but during exercise is is directed towards voluntary muscles
What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction
What is cardiac output?
The volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute
Q = SV x HR
What blood vessel runs across the alveoli?
Which blood vessel pulses as blood moves through them?
Which blood vessel carries deoxygenated blood?
Which blood vessel can gases diffuse through the walls of?
Which blood vessel does blood become oxygenated through?
Which blood vessel does CO2 diffuse into the air in the lungs through?
Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?
Which blood vessel contains a high blood pressure?
Which blood vessels have valves, which open due to the pressure of the blood flow and then close to prevent backflow?
Which blood vessels carry oxygenated blood?
Which blood vessels contain a low blood pressure?
Which blood vessels are microscopic?
Which blood vessels have a small internal diameter?
Which blood vessel does not have valves?
Which blood vessel has a large internal diameter?
Which blood vessel can vasodilate and vasoconsrict?
Which blood vessels are a huge network of tiny vessels linking arteries and veins
Why does the does your heart rate increase as u exercise?
Because the heart is called on to supply more oxygen to the working muscles, therefore has to work harder. Your heart rate has to increase considerably to be able to cope with strenuous exercise
What is vasoconstriction?
The narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to restrict the volume of the blood traveling through it. (Constrict during exercise)
What is vasodilation?
The widening of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to increase the volume of blood traveling through it. Arteries dilate during exercise
Define the cardiac cycle
One cycle of the diastole and systole is the cardiac cycle
What is blood pressure?
The pressure in which the blood is under
What is the systolic reading and what does it measure?
Measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart contracts and ejects blood from the heart
What is the diastolic reading and what does it measure?
Measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart relaxes and then fills with blood
What is cardiac output?
The volume of the blood ejected from the heart in one minute
What equation would u use to identify the relationship between stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output?
Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
What is the equation for cardiac output?
CO= SV x HR
What are the characteristics of aerobic exercise?
•over a long period of time
• not too fast
• with oxygen
What is the equation for aerobic exercise?
Glucose + oxygen = energy + CO2 + water
When are waste products such as CO2 and H2O created?
During aerobic energy when energy is being used
What are the characteristics of anaerobic exercise?
•short period of time
• powerful muscular contractions
Why is is glucose not fully broken down during anaerobic exercise and what happens instead?
Because oxygen is not being supplied to the working muscles so CO2 and H2O are converted into lactic acid instead
What happens to the muscles when they fill with lactic acid?
They become painful and fatigued
What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose = energy + lactic acid
What does EPOC stand for and what is it?
Excessive post-exercise oxygen consumption. (Oxygen debt)
Replenishes the body with oxygen and enables the body to convert lactic acid into glucose, CO2 and H2O
What happens to the body straight after anaerobic exercise?
The body takes in lots of oxygen to repay the oxygen debt
What happens to cardiac output when you exercise?
Your cardiac output increases. Your heart rate works harder to deliver oxygen to your muscles, and to carry away CO2 more quickly
What are the four methods or exercise recovery?
• Cooling down
•manipulation or controlling diet
What are the benefits of a cool down?
•Replenishes the working muscles with oxygen after exercise
•converts lactic acid into glucose, CO2 and H2O
•decreasing body temperature
What is DOMS?
Delayed on-set of muscle soreness
How do ice baths help prevent DOMS?
They flush lactic acid from the muscles and reduce swelling on the muscles
What should be included in a rehydration drink?
Sodium, carbohydrates and electrolytes
What factors can effect how much water you need?
Temperature, humidity, altitude
What do sports drinks do?
Boost glucose levels before competition, contain carbohydrates for energy,
Why do sports drinks contain sodium, potassium and chloride?
To maintain water balance outside the cell
What is carbohydrate loading?
A method that involves increasing the amount of carbohydrates eaten before an event to maximise the amount of glucose in the body so it can better the performance
Why is protein intake important?
Important for power athletes e.g. Weightlifters. Increases strength and speed and help with growth and repair
Why do we get oxygen debt?
After exercise the muscles are still full of lactic acid as they don't have enough oxygen
Why do the left ventricle walls have a thick layer of muscle?
Because they have to pump blood all around the body and the right side doesn't
What are the two phases of the cardiac cycle?
Diastole and systole