PE The Cardiovascular And Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

PE GCSE > PE The Cardiovascular And Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in PE The Cardiovascular And Respiratory System Deck (30):
1

structure of the arteries

thick muscular walls and small lumen

2

function of the arteries

carry oxygenated blood away from the heart under high pressure

3

structure of the veins

they have thinner walls and a larger lumen

4

function of the veins

carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart under low pressure

5

structure of the capillaries

one cells thick

6

function of the capillaries

link the veins and arteries together and are used for gaseous exchange

7

what is stroke volume ?

the amount of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle per contraction

8

what is cardiac output ?

is the volume of blood ejected from the heart in the minute

9

what is heart rate ?

is the number of times the heart pumps is one minute

10

what is vasoconstriction ?

narrowing of the internal diameter of blood vessels
to restrict the blood flow through them
this is done to restrict the amount of blood going to inactive areas in sport

11

what is vasodilation ?

widening of the internal diameter of blood vessels to increase blood flow through them
this is done in sport to increase the amount of blood traveling to the active areas

12

what is diastole ?

when chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood

13

what is systole ?

when the chambers of the heart contract and empty, when blood is ejected from the heart

14

what is the respiratory system ?

the system that brings in oxygen to the body so it can be used to produce energy

15

what is the pathway of air through the body ?

-air enters through the mouth/nose
-travels down the trachea
-this connects to the lungs
-then it passes through bronchi and the bronchioles and into the alveoli where gaseous exchange takes place

16

how does gaseous take place ?

-oxygen passes through the alveoli and into the red blood cells
-in the capillaries the oxygen combines with haemoglobin
and make oxyhaemoglobin and is carried around the body
-at the same time haemoglobin carries carbon dioxide from the body to the capillaries
-the carbon dioxide passes through the alveoli and is breathed out

17

what features of the alveoli help for gaseous exchange ?

-thin, one cell thick
-moist surface area
-large surface area
-has many capillaries running across the alveoli

18

what is haemoglobin ?

a protein found in the red blood cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body

19

what is oxyhaemoglobin ?

a chemical formed when haemoglobin form with oxygen

20

how do we breath in ?
(inspiration)

-diaphragm contracts and moves down
-the intercostal muscles contract, pushes the ribs up
-pushes out the sternum
-increase the chest cavity
-reduces air pressure in the chest
-sucks air in

21

how do we breath out ?
(expiration)

- the diaphragm relaxes, moves up
-intercostal muscles relax , moving the ribs down
-dropping the sternum
-makes chest cavity smaller
-increases the air pressure
-pushes air out

22

what is aerobic respiration ?

respiration where oxygen is present

23

what is anaerobic respiration?

respiration where oxygen is NOT present

24

examples of aerobic respiration ?

- marathon
- long distance swimming
- endurance cycling

25

examples of anaerobic respiration ?

- 100m sprint
- triple jump
- weight lifting

26

what does EPOC stand for ?

Excess
Post -
Oxygen
Consumption

27

what is EPOC ?

the amount of oxygen need to recover after anaerobic respiration

28

what are the signs of EPOC ?

increased heart rate
deep breathing

29

how might someone repay oxygen debt or EPOC ?

-ice baths
-massage
-cool down

30

what does EPOC do ?

replenishes the body with oxygen to break down the lactic acid produced in anaerobic excercise and turn it into carbon dioxide, glucose and water