Flashcards in PE The Cardiovascular And Respiratory System Deck (30):
structure of the arteries
thick muscular walls and small lumen
function of the arteries
carry oxygenated blood away from the heart under high pressure
structure of the veins
they have thinner walls and a larger lumen
function of the veins
carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart under low pressure
structure of the capillaries
one cells thick
function of the capillaries
link the veins and arteries together and are used for gaseous exchange
what is stroke volume ?
the amount of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle per contraction
what is cardiac output ?
is the volume of blood ejected from the heart in the minute
what is heart rate ?
is the number of times the heart pumps is one minute
what is vasoconstriction ?
narrowing of the internal diameter of blood vessels
to restrict the blood flow through them
this is done to restrict the amount of blood going to inactive areas in sport
what is vasodilation ?
widening of the internal diameter of blood vessels to increase blood flow through them
this is done in sport to increase the amount of blood traveling to the active areas
what is diastole ?
when chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood
what is systole ?
when the chambers of the heart contract and empty, when blood is ejected from the heart
what is the respiratory system ?
the system that brings in oxygen to the body so it can be used to produce energy
what is the pathway of air through the body ?
-air enters through the mouth/nose
-travels down the trachea
-this connects to the lungs
-then it passes through bronchi and the bronchioles and into the alveoli where gaseous exchange takes place
how does gaseous take place ?
-oxygen passes through the alveoli and into the red blood cells
-in the capillaries the oxygen combines with haemoglobin
and make oxyhaemoglobin and is carried around the body
-at the same time haemoglobin carries carbon dioxide from the body to the capillaries
-the carbon dioxide passes through the alveoli and is breathed out
what features of the alveoli help for gaseous exchange ?
-thin, one cell thick
-moist surface area
-large surface area
-has many capillaries running across the alveoli
what is haemoglobin ?
a protein found in the red blood cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide around the body
what is oxyhaemoglobin ?
a chemical formed when haemoglobin form with oxygen
how do we breath in ?
-diaphragm contracts and moves down
-the intercostal muscles contract, pushes the ribs up
-pushes out the sternum
-increase the chest cavity
-reduces air pressure in the chest
-sucks air in
how do we breath out ?
- the diaphragm relaxes, moves up
-intercostal muscles relax , moving the ribs down
-dropping the sternum
-makes chest cavity smaller
-increases the air pressure
-pushes air out
what is aerobic respiration ?
respiration where oxygen is present
what is anaerobic respiration?
respiration where oxygen is NOT present
examples of aerobic respiration ?
- long distance swimming
- endurance cycling
examples of anaerobic respiration ?
- 100m sprint
- triple jump
- weight lifting
what does EPOC stand for ?
what is EPOC ?
the amount of oxygen need to recover after anaerobic respiration
what are the signs of EPOC ?
increased heart rate
how might someone repay oxygen debt or EPOC ?