Pectoral & Upper Limb Muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pectoral & Upper Limb Muscles Deck (230):
1

Pectoralis major
Origin

- Clavicular head: Medial one half of the clavicle
- Sternocostal head: Sternum, & Costal cartilage 1-7

2

Pectoralis major
Insertion

Lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus of humerus

3

Pectoralis major
Action

1. Medially rotates the humerus
2. Flexes the humerus
3. ** Adducts the humerus

4

Pectoralis major
Innervation & blood supply

Innervation: Medial and lateral pectoral nerves
(from C8-T1 and C5-C7 of brachial plexus, respectively)

Blood supply: Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery

5

Pectoralis minor
Origin

Ribs 3-5
(near costal cartilage)

6

Pectoralis minor
Insertion

Coracoid process of the scapula

7

Pectoralis minor
Action

1. Anteriorly tilts and depresses the scapula
2. Elevates ribs for deep inspiration

8

Pectoralis minor
Innervation and blood supply

Innervation: Medial pectoral nerve (from C8-T1 of brachial plexus)

Blood supply: Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery

9

Subclavius
Origin

Rib 1

10

Subclavius
insertion

Clavicle

11

Subclavius
Action

- Depresses the clavicle
- Stabilizes the sternoclavicular joint

12

Subclavius
Innervation and blood supply

Innervation: Nerve to subclavius

Blood supply: Clavicular branch of the thoracoacromial artery

13

Serratus anterior
Origin

Medial border of the scapula (anterior surface)

14

Serratus anterior
Insertion

Ribs 1-9, lateral parts

15

Serratus anterior
Action

- Protects and rotates the scapula
- Holds scapula against thoracic wall
(esp. when reaching anteriorly)

16

Serratus anterior
Innervation and blood supply

Innervation: Long thoracic nerve (brachial plexus)

Blood supply: Lateral thoracic artery

17

Subscapularis
Origin

Subscapular fossa

18

Subscapularis
Insertion

Lesser tubercle of the humerus

19

Subscapularis
Action

Medially rotates the humerus

20

Subscapularis
Innervation & blood supply

Innervation: upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5 and C6 of brachial plexus, respectively)

Blood supply: subscapular artery

21

Coracobrachialis
Origin

Coracoid process of the scapula

22

Coracobrachialis
Insertion

Medial side of the shaft of the humerus


23

Coracobrachialis
Action

Adducts and flexes the humerus

24

Coracobrachialis
Innervation and blood supply

Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve (ventral rami of C5, C6)
Blood supply: Muscular branches of brachial artery

25

Biceps brachii
Origin

Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Short head: Coracoid process of the scapula

26

Biceps brachii
Insertion

- Radial tuberosity and antebrachial fascia

Connects via bicipital aponeurosis

27

Biceps brachii
Action

Supinates and flexes the forearm
- POWERFUL

28

Biceps brachii
Innervation and blood supply

Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve (c5,c6)

Blood supply: muscular branches of brachial artery

29

Brachialis
Origin

Anterior aspect of the humerus

30

Brachialis
Insertion

Tuberosity of the ulna

31

Brachialis
Action

Flexes the forearm

32

Brachialis
Innervation and blood supply

Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve (ventral rami of C5, C6)
Blood supply: Muscular branches of brachial artery

33

Joints of the upper limb

- Acromioclavicular (AC) joint (gliding)
- Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint (ball & socket)
- Elbow (humeroulnar) Joint (Hinge)
- Superior and inferior radioulnar joints (pivot)
- Radiocarpal (wrist) joint (Condyloid)
- Metacarpophalangeal joint (Condyloid)
- Proximal interphalageal joint (hinge)
- Distal interphalageal joint (hinge)

34

Winged Scapula

When a patient extends arm, medial border of scapula is visible through skin when long thoracic nerve is damaged
- Serratus anterior cannot hold scapula to thoracic wall

35

Types of shoulder disocations

These are all glenohumeral joint dislocations
1. Subcoracoid dislocation
2. Subglenoid dislocation
3. Subclavicular dislocation

36

What are the rotator cuff muscles?

1. Supraspinatus
2. Infraspinatus
3. Subscapularis
4. Teres minor

37

Deltoid
Origin

- Clavicular part: Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle
- Acromial part: Acromion process of scapula
- Spinal part: Spine of scapula

38

Deltoid
Insertion

Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

39

Deltoid
Action

Clavicular part: Flexes, internally rotates
Acromial part: Abducts the humerus
Spinal part: Extends and externally rotates the humerus

40

Deltoid
Innervation and Blood Supply

Innervation: Axillary nerve (brachial plexus)

Blood supply: Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery

41

Brachioradialis
Origin

Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus

42

Brachioradialis
Insertion

Styloid process of the radius

43

Brachioradialis
Action

- Flexes elbow from mid-prone position
"The drinking muscle"

44

Brachioradialis
Innervation and Blood Supply

Innervation: Radial nerve

Blood supply: Radial recurrent artery

45

Triceps brachii
Origin

Long head: Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

Medial/Lateral head: Posterior surface of the humerus

46

Triceps brachii
Insertion

Olecranon process of the ulna

47

Triceps brachii
Action

Extends the forearm

Long head: Extends & adducts the arm

48

Triceps brachii
Innervation & Blood supply

Innervation: Radial nerve (C6, C7, C8)

Blood supply: Deep brachial artery

49

Carpal bones

- Scaphoid
- Lunate
- Triquetrum
- Pisiform
- Hamate
- Capitate
- Trapezoid
- Trapezium

50

Anterior forearm muscles (superficial)

From lateral to medial:
- Pronator teres
- Flexor carpi radialis
- Palmaris longus
- Flexor carpi ulnaris

Pass-Fail-Pass-Fail

51

Anterior forearm muscles (superficial)
Innervation

Median nerve
EXCEPT for flexor carpi ulnaris (which is ulnar nerve)

52

Anterior forearm muscles (intermediate) & Innervation

- Flexor digitorum superficialis (travels through carpal tunnel to palm)

Innervation: Median nerve

53

Anterior forearm muscles (deep group)

- Flexor digitorum profundus (travels through carpal tunnel to palm)
- Flexor pollicis longus (travels through carpal tunnel to palm)
- Pronator quadratus

54

Anterior forearm muscles (deep group)
Innervations

- Flexor digitorum profundus: Medial part is ulnar neve, Lateral part: median nerve
- Flexor pollicis longus: Median nerve
- Pronator quadratus: Median nerve

- Flex DIP usually

55

Posterior forearm muscles (superficial group)

- Extensor carpi radialis longus
- Extensor carpi radialis brevus
- Extensor digitorum
- Extensor digiti minimi
- Extensor carpi ulnaris

56

Posterior forearm muscles (deep group)

- Abductor pollicis longus (acts on thumb)
- Extensor pollicis brevis (acts on thumb)
- Extensor pollicis longus (acts on thumb)
- Extensor indicis
- Supinator

ABLEs

57

Thenar eminence muscles (thumb)

- Abductor pollicis
- Flexor pollicis brevis
- Opponens pollicis

58

Palmar aponeurosis (what is it? Location?)

Deep fascia, longitudinal fibrous sheaths from digits 2-5
- Connects to palmaris longus tendon

59

Adductor pollicis
- Origin
- Insertion
- Action
- Innervation

NOT part of thenar eminence
- Transverse head is from shaft of metacarpal 3, Oblique head is from capitate bone, bases of metacarpals 2-3
- Base of proximal phalynx of thumb
- Adducts thumb
- Ulnar nerve (deep branch)

60

Hypothenar eminience muscles (little finger)

- Abductor digiti minimi
- Flexor digiti minimi brevis
- Opponens digiti minimi

61

Lumbrical muscle
- Origin
- Insertion
- Action
- Innervation

- Tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
- Lateral sides of the dorsal digital expansions of the tendons of extensor digitorum muscles
- Flexes MCP joint, Extends DIP and PIP joint
- Innervation: 1-2 are median nerve (lateral side); 3-4 are ulnar nerve

62

Dorsal interosseus muscles
-Origins
-Insertions
-Actions
-Innervations

There are 4 of them
-Origins: Between digits 1&2, 2&3, 3&4, 4&5
-Insertions: lateral side of digit 2, 3; medial side of digit 3,4
-Actions: abducts digits 2-4 away from axis of middle finger, Flex MCP joints, Help extend PIP and DIP joints
-Innervation: Ulnar nerve

63

Palmar interosseus muscles
-Origins
-Insertions
-Actions
-Innervations

There are 3 of them
-Origins: Medial side of metacarpal 2, Lateral side of metacarpal 4, Lateral side of metacarpal 5
-Insertions: Medial side of digit 2, lateral side of digit 4, lateral side of digit 5
-Actions: ADducts digits 2-4 towards the axis of middle finger, Flex MCP joints, Help extend PIP and DIP joints
-Innervation: Ulnar nerve

64

Function of Acromioclavicular joint

Doesn't normally move (helps lift arm over head), can be affected by muscles when AC is broken

65

Function of radioulnar joints

Participate in supination and pronation of forearm

66

Pronator teres
Origin

-Medial epicondyle/ supraepicondylar ridge of the humerus
- medial side of the coraNoid process

67

Pronator teres
Insertion

Lateral midshaft of radius

68

Pronator teres
Action

Pronates AND flexes the forearm

69

Pronator teres
Innervation

Median nerve

70

Pronator teres
Blood supply

Ulnar artery

71

Flexor carpi radialis
Origin

Medial epicondyle of the humerus

72

Flexor carpi radialis
Insertion

Base of metacarpals 2-3

73

Flexor carpi radialis
Action

Flexes AND abducts the wrist

74

Flexor carpi radialis
Innervation

Median nerve

75

Flexor carpi radialis
Blood supply

Ulnar artery

76

Palmaris longus
Origin

Medial epicondyle of the humerus

77

Palmaris longus
Insertion

Palmar aponeurosis

78

Palmaris longus
Innervation

Median nerve

79

Palmaris longus action

Flexes the wrist

80

Palmaris longus
Blood supply

Ulnar artery

81

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Origin

Medial epicondyle of humerus

82

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Insertion

Pisiform bone
Base of metacarpal 5

83

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Action

Flexes and ADucts wrist

84

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Innervation

Ulnar nerve

85

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Blood supply

Ulnar artery

86

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Origin

Medial epicondyle of the humerus
& oblique line of the radius

87

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Insertion

Middle phalanges of digits 2-5

88

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Action

Flexes PIP of digits 2-5

89

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Innervation

Median nerve

90

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Blood supply

Ulnar artery

91

Flexor digitorum profundus
Origin

Anterior and medial surface of the ulna and interosseous membrane

92

Flexor digitorum profundus
Insertion

Distal phalanges of digits 2-5

93

Flexor digitorum profundus
Action

Flexes DIP of digits 2-5

94

Flexor digitorum profundus
Innervation

Lateral half: anterior interosseous nerve (median nerve)
Medial half: ulnar nerve

95

Flexor digitorum profundus
Blood supply

Ulnar and anterior interosseous arteries

96

Flexor pollicis longus
Origin

Anterior surface of the radius and interosseous membrane

97

Flexor pollicis longus
Insertion

Base of distal phalanx of thumb

98

Flexor pollicis longus
Action

Flexes IP of thumb

99

Flexor pollicis longus
Innervation

Anterior interosseous branch of the median nerve

100

Flexor pollicis longus
Blood supply

Anterior interosseous artery

101

Pronator quadratus
Origin

Distal ulna

102

Pronator quadratus
Insertion

Distal radius

103

Pronator quadratus
Action

Pronates the forearm

104

Pronator quadratus
Innervation

Anterior interosseous branch of median nerve

105

Pronator quadratus
Blood supply

Anterior interosseous artery

106

Palmaris brevis
Origin

Medial aspect of the palmar aponeurosis

107

Palmaris brevis
Insertion

Skin over hypothenar eminence

108

Palmaris brevis
Action

Wrinkles skin of medial palm

109

Palmaris brevis
Innervation

Ulnar nerve

110

Palmaris brevis
Blood supply

Superficial palmar arterial arch

111

Abductor pollicis brevis
Origin

-transverse carpal ligament
-tubercle of scaphoid and trapezium

Part of thenar eminence

112

Abductor pollicis brevis
Insertion

Lateral side, base of proximal phalanx of thumb

113

Abductor pollicis brevis
Action

Abducts the thumb

114

Abductor pollicis brevis
Innervation

Recurrent branch of the median nerve

115

Abductor pollicis brevis
Blood supply

Superficial palmar branch of radial artery

116

Flexor pollicis brevis
Origin

-transverse carpal ligament
-tubercle of scaphoid and trapezium

Part of thenar eminence

117

Flexor pollicis brevis
Insertion

Lateral side, base of proximal phalanx of thumb

118

Flexor pollicis brevis
Action

Flexes thumb

119

Flexor pollicis brevis
Innervation

Recurrent branch of median nerve

120

Flexor pollicis brevis
Blood supply

Superficial palmar branch of radial artery

121

Opponens pollicis
Origin

-transverse carpal ligament
-tubercle of scaphoid and trapezium

Part of thenar eminence

122

Opponens pollicis
Insertion

Lateral side of shaft of the first metacarpal bone

123

Opponens pollicis
Action

Rotates the first metacarpal towards the palm

124

Opponens pollicis
Innervation

Recurrent branch of the median nerve

125

Opponens pollicis
Blood supply

Superficial palmar branch of the radial artery

126

Abductor digiti minimi
Origin

Pisiform, hamate, and transverse carpal ligament

- part of hypOthenar eminence

127

Abductor digiti minimi
Insertion

Medial side of base of the proximal phalanx of digit 5

128

Abductor digiti minimi
Action

Abducts digit 5

129

Abductor digiti minimi
Innervation

Ulnar nerve

130

Abductor digiti minimi
Blood supply

Deep palmar branch of the Ulnar artery

131

Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Origin

Pisiform, hamate, and transverse carpal ligament

- part of hypOthenar eminence

132

Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Insertion

Volar side of base of the proximal phalanx of digit 5

133

Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Action

Flexes digit 5

134

Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Innervation

Ulnar nerve

135

Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Blood supply

Deep palmar branch of the Ulnar artery

136

Opponens digiti minimi
Origin

Pisiform, hamate, and transverse carpal ligament

- part of hypOthenar eminence

137

Opponens digiti minimi
Insertion

Medial border of the fifth metacarpal bone

138

Opponens digiti minimi
Action

Rotates fifth metacarpal towards palm

139

Opponens digiti minimi
Innervation

Ulnar nerve

140

Opponens digiti minimi
Blood supply

Deep palmar branch of the Ulnar artery

141

Lumbricals
Origin

Flexor digitorum profundus tendons

142

Lumbricals
Insertion

Radial side of the extensor expansions of digits 2–5

143

Lumbricals
Action

- Flexes MCP
- Extends PIP and DIP of digits 2–5

144

Lumbricals
Innervation

1 and 2—median n.
3 and 4—deep branch of ulnar n.

145

Lumbricals
Blood supply

Superficial AND Deep palmar arterial arches

146

Adductor pollicis
Origin

- Transverse head—anterior surface of the shaft of third metacarpal
- Oblique head—second and third metacarpals and adjacent carpal bones

147

Adductor pollicis
Insertion

Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

148

Adductor pollicis
Action

Draws the thumb toward the plane of the palm (adduction)

149

Adductor pollicis
Innervation

Deep branch of ulnar n.

150

Adductor pollicis
Blood supply

Deep palmar arterial arch

151

Palmar interossei muscles
Origin

Palmar surface of metacarpals of digits 2, 4, and 5

152

Palmar interossei muscles
Insertion

Base of the proximal phalanges and extensor expansion of digits 2, 4, and 5

153

Palmar interossei muscles
Action

- Adducts digits 2, 4, and 5
- Assists lumbricals in MCP flexion

154

Palmar interossei muscles
Innervation

Deep branch of ulnar nerve

155

Palmar interossei muscles
Blood supply

Deep palmar arterial arch

156

Dorsal interossei muscles
Origin

Metacarpal bones 1–5

157

Dorsal interossei muscles
Insertion

Base of the proximal phalanges and the extensor expansion of digits 2–4
-Lateral side of digits 2,3; Medial side of digits 3,4

158

Dorsal interossei muscles
Action

Abducts digits 2–4 and assists lumbricals in MCP flexion

*D AB

159

Dorsal interossei muscles
Innervation

Ulnar nerve (deep branch)

160

Dorsal interossei muscles
Blood supply

Deep palmar arterial arch

161

Anconeus
Origin

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

162

Anconeus
Insertion

Lateral surface of olecranon and posterior surface of proximal ulna

163

Anconeus
Action

Assists triceps in extension of the elbow

164

Anconeus
Innervation

Radial nerve

165

Anconeus
Blood supply

Deep brachial artery

166

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Origin

Distal lateral supracondylar ridge

167

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Insertion

Base of second metacarpal

168

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Action

Extends and abducts the hand

169

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Innervation

Radial nerve

170

Extensor carpi radialis longus
Blood supply

Radial artery AND radial recurrent artery

171

Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Origin

Lateral epicondyle of humerus
(via common extensor tendon)

172

Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Insertion

Base of third metacarpal

173

Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Action

Extends and abducts the hand

174

Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Innervation

Deep branch of radial nerve

175

Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Blood supply

Radial artery AND radial recurrent artery

176

Extensor digitorum
Origin

Lateral epicondyle of humerus
(via common extensor tendon)

177

Extensor digitorum
Insertion

Extensor expansions of digits 2–5

178

Extensor digitorum
Action

Extends digits 2–5

179

Extensor digitorum
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve

(from radial nerve)

180

Extensor digitorum
Blood supply

Posterior interosseous artery (from ulnar artery)

181

Extensor digiti minimi
Origin

Lateral epicondyle of humerus
(via common extensor tendon)

182

Extensor digiti minimi
Insertion

Extensor expansion of digit 5

183

Extensor digiti minimi
Action

Extends fifth digit

184

Extensor digiti minimi
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)

185

Extensor digiti minimi
Blood supply

Posterior interosseous artery (from ulnar artery)

186

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Origin

Lateral epicondyle of humerus
(via common extensor tendon)

187

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Insertion

Base of 5th metacarpal

188

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Action

Extends and adducts hand

189

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)

190

Extensor carpi ulnaris
Blood supply

Posterior interosseous artery (from ulnar artery)

191

Supinator
Origin

1. Lateral epicondyle of humerus
2. Radial collateral and annular ligaments
3. Crest of the ulna

192

Supinator
Insertion

Lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal 1/3 of the ulna

193

Supinator
Action

Supinates the forearm

194

Supinator
Innervation

Deep branch of the radial nerve

195

Supinator
Blood supply

Radial recurrent artery AND posterior interosseous artery

196

Abductor pollicis longus
Origin

Posterior surface of the:
1. radius
2. ulna
3. interosseous membrane

197

Abductor pollicis longus
Insertion

Base of first metacarpal

198

Abductor pollicis longus
Action

Abducts and extends CMC of thumb

199

Abductor pollicis longus
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)

200

Abductor pollicis longus
Blood supply

Posterior interosseous artery

201

Extensor pollicis brevis
Origin

Posterior surface of the:
1. radius
2. ulna
3. interosseous membrane

202

Extensor pollicis brevis
Insertion

Base of the proximal phalanx of digit 1

203

Extensor pollicis brevis
Action

Extends MCP of thumb

204

Extensor pollicis brevis
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)

205

Extensor pollicis brevis
Blood supply

Posterior interosseous artery

206

Extensor pollicis longus
Origin

Posterior surface of the:
1. radius
2. ulna
3. interosseous membrane

207

Extensor pollicis longus
Insertion

Base of the distal phalanx of digit 1

208

Extensor pollicis longus
Action

Extends MCP and IP of thumb

209

Extensor pollicis longus
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve (from radial nerve)

210

Extensor pollicis longus
Blood supply

Posterior interosseous artery

211

Extensor indicis
Origin

Posterior surface of radius, ulna, and interosseous membrane

212

Extensor indicis
Insertion

Extensor expansion of digit 2

213

Extensor indicis
Action

Extends digit 2

214

Extensor indicis
Innervation

Posterior interosseous nerve

215

Extensor indicis
Arterial supply

Posterior interosseous artery

216

External intercostal muscles
Origin

Inferior border of the rib above

217

External intercostal muscles
Insertion

Superior border of the rib below

218

External intercostal muscles
Action

Elevates the rib below

219

External intercostal muscles
Innervation

Intercostal nerves

220

External intercostal muscles
Blood supply

Intercostal arteries

221

Internal intercostal muscles
Origin

Inferior border of the rib above

222

Internal intercostal muscles
Insertion

Superior border of the rib below

223

Internal intercostal muscles
Action

Depresses the rib above

224

Internal intercostal muscles
Innervation

Intercostal nn.

225

Internal intercostal muscles
Blood supply

Intercostal arteries

226

Innermost intercostal muscles
Origin

Inferior border of the rib above

227

Innermost intercostal muscles
Insertion

Superior border of rib below

228

Innermost intercostal muscles
Action

Depresses the rib above

229

Innermost intercostal muscles
Innervation

Intercostal nn.

230

Innermost intercostal muscles
Blood supply

Intercostal arteries