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Flashcards in Pectoral Region_MSB Deck (76):
1

What is the pectoral region?

-Region external to the anterior thoracic wall

2

What does the pectoral region do?

Anchors Upper limb to trunk

3

What do the pectoral region consist of?

- Pectoral Muscles (movements of pectoral girdle and upper limb)
- Superficial Compartment (skin, superficial fascia, breast)
- Deep Compartment (muscles & associated neuromuscular structure)

4

What does the pectorals major muscle look like?

Large, fan shaped superficial muscle covering superior thorax

5

What are the two heads of the pectorals major muscle?

1) Clavicular head
2) Sternocostal head

6

Where does the clavicular head originate from?

Originates from medial 1/2 clavicle

7

What does the sternocostal head look like

large and the lateral border is at the anterior wall axilla

8

Where does the sternocostal head originate from?

Originates from medial parts of anterior thoracic wall

9

Where does the pectoralis major muscle insert into?

Lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus /groove

10

What does the pectoralis major muscle do?

Helps for powerful adduction, flexion, medial rotation of the arm

11

What is the ORIGIN of the pectoralis major muscle?

- Median half of clavicle
- Sternum (anterior surface)
- Upper 7 Costal Cartilage
- External oblique aponeurosis

12

What is the INSERTION of the pectoralis major muscle?

- Lateral lip of intertubercular groove (bicipital groove(
- Muscle fibres with more superior origin, insert lower and more anteriorly on lateral lip than those of inferior origin

13

What is the INNERVATION of the pectoralis major muscle?

Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerve

14

What is the ACTION of the pectoralis major muscle?

Adduction, Medial Rotation and Flexion of arm at the shoulder joint

15

How do you test the clavicular head of the pectoralis major muscle?

Abduct arm 90 degrees
Try to move arm anteriorly against resistance
The clavicular head can be seen and palpated

16

How do you test the sternoclavicular head of the pectoralis major muscle?

Abduct arm 60 degrees
Try to adduct arm against resistance
If acting normally, the sternocostal head can be seen and palpated

17

What is the ORIGIN of the pectoralis minor muscle?

Surfaces of ribs 3,4,5

18

What is the INSERTION of the pectoralis minor muscle?

Coracoid process of the scapula

19

What is the INNERVATION of the pectoralis minor muscle?

Medial Pectoral Nerve

20

What is the ACTION of the pectoralis minor muscle?

- Draws Scapula forward and down
- Assists in raising ribs during inspiration

21

What is the ORIGIN of the Serratus Anterior muscle?

External lateral surfaces of ribs 1- 8 or 1- 9

22

What is the INSERTION of the Serratus Anterior muscle?

Anterior surface of the medial border of the scapula

23

What is the INNERVATION of the Serratus Anterior muscle?

Long Thoracic Nerve

24

What is the ACTION of the Serratus Anterior muscle?

- Protracts and fixes scapula against the thoracic wall
- Assists in lateral rotation of the scapula

25

What is the ORIGIN of the Subclavius muscle?

Junction of 1st rib and its costal cartilage

26

What is the INSERTION of the Subclavius muscle?

Subclavian groove of clavicle

27

What is the INNERVATION of the Subclavius muscle?

Nerve to subclavius

28

What is the ACTION of the Subclavius muscle?

- Draws clavicle down and forward
- Stabilises the sternoclavicular joint

29

Where is the pectoral fascia?

Covers (Invests) pectoralis major
Continuous with anterior abdominal wall fascia inferiorly
Becomes axillary fascia laterally

30

Where is the clavipectoral fascia?

Deep to pectoralis major

31

Where does the calvipectoral fascia extends from?

From the clavicle

32

What does the clavipectoral fascia do?

Enclose subclavius and pectoralis minor

33

What is the clavipectoral fascia inferior to?

Pectoralis minor continues as the suspensory ligament of the axilla

34

What is the clavipectoral fascia pierced by?

Neurovascular structures

35

What is a joint?

Site of articulation between bones

36

What is the synovial joints for?

Motion and Flexibility

37

What is the synovial joints separated by?

Articular cavity

38

What are the characteristic features of the synovial joint?

- Cartilage covering articulating surfaces (Articular Hyaline cartilage)
- Joint capsule

39

What does the joint capsule contain?

1) Synovial membrane
2) Fibrous membrane
3) Articular Disks, Fat Pads, Tendons
4) Ligaments
5) Tendons

40

What does the synovial membrane produce?

Produce synovial fluid

41

Where does the synovial membrane attach to?

Attaches at margin of joint surfaces between cartilage and bone

42

What does the synovial membrane contain?

Synovial bursae / tendon sheaths

43

What does the fibrous membrane do?

Surrounds and stabilises joint
Parts of the fibrous membrane may thicken to form ligaments

44

What do ligaments do?

Attach bone to bone

45

What do tendons do?

Attach muscle to bone

46

What are synovial joints described by?

Shape and movement

47

What does the synovial joints shapes include?

Plane (flat)
Saddle
Hinge (e.g. elbow)
Ball and socket (e.g. shoulder)

48

What are the movements that the synovial joints are described by?

Uniaxial - movement in one plane
Biaxial - movement in two planes
Multiaxial - movement in three planes

49

What is the articulation of clavicle with axial skeleton called?

Sternoclavicular Joint

50

What is the articulation of clavicle and scapula with each other called?

Acromioclavicular Joint

51

What gives the upper limb its freedom of movements?

Movements at the Sternoclavicular, Acromioclavicular, and Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joints

52

At the Sternoclavicular Joint, what are the articulating surfaces? [3]

1) Clavicle
2) Manubrium of sternum
3) Cartilage of 1st rib

53

Which type of joint is the Sternoclavicular joint?

Saddle type of synovial joint

54

What is the movement of the Sternoclavicular joint?

Gliding

55

What does the sternoclavicular joint contain?

Ligaments

56

Name the ligaments that are in the sternoclavicular joint? [6]

1) Articular capsule
2) Anterior Sternoclavicular ligament
3) Posterior Sternoclavicular LIgament
4) Interclavicular Ligament
5) Costoclavicular Ligament
6) Articular Disk

57

Where is the Anterior Sternoclavicular ligament located?

Clavicle to anterior surface of manubrium

58

Where is the Posterior Sternoclavicular ligament located?

Between posterior surfaces of clavicle and manubrium

59

What does the Interclavicular Ligament do? [2]

Joins the superior surface of 2 clavicles across sternal notch
Limits depression of shoulder

60

Where is the Costoclavicular Ligament located?

From 1st costal cartilage to inferior surface of clavicle

61

What does the costoclavicular ligament do?

Limits elevation of shoulder

62

Where is the Articular Disk found?

Between sternum and clavicle

63

What does the Articular Disk do?

Limits depression of shoulder

64

What is the blood supply for the Sternoclavicular Joint?

Internal thoracic and Suprascapular Arteries

65

What is the innervation for the Sternoclavicular Joint?

Branches from nerve to Subclavius

66

What are the movements allowed because of the Sternoclavicular Joint as it is a very stable joint?

Elevation and Depression (Shrugging shoulders) of shoulders on the parasagittal axis

Protraction and Retraction (reaching for an object) of shoulders on the longitudinal axis

67

Which is more common: Clavicle fractures or SC joint dislocation?

Clavicle fractures

68

What are the articulating surfaces of the Acromioclavicular Joint?

Clavicle
Acromion of the Scapula

69

What type of joint is the Acromioclavicular joint?

Planet type of synovial joint

70

What are the movements allowed because of the Acromioclavicular joint?

Gliding
Allow scapula to move on the lateral end clavicle by rotating on 2 axes

71

What does the Acromioclavicular Joint have?

Ligaments

72

Name the ligaments that are part of the Acromioclavicular Joint. [4]

1) Articular capsule
2) Articular Disk
3) Superior Acromioclavicular Ligament
4) Inferior Acromioclavicular Ligament

73

Name the ligaments that are not part of the Acomioclavicular Joint.

1) Conoid Ligament
2) Trapezoid Ligament
3) Coracoclavicular Ligament - Keeps clavicle against acromion

74

What are the blood supply of the Acromioclavicular Joint.

Supraclavicular and thoracoacromial arteries

75

What are the innervation of the Acromioclavicular Joint

Branches from the lateral pectoral and axillary nerves

76

How is the acromioclavicular joint normally damaged?

Commonly dislocated in contact sports