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Flashcards in Pediatric Class Deck (58):
1

What is growth

Increase in size but does not necessarily include development

2

What is development

Maturation of structures and includes growth

3

What growth pattern do infants follow

Rapid growth period, especially the first 6 months.... Head grows the fastest

4

What growth pattern do toddlers follow

Trunk grows the fastest
Bow legged due to leg muscles bearing the weight of the large trunk

5

What growth pattern do pre schoolers follow

Slower growth period
Trunk grows the fastest
Healthy preschooler is slender with good posture

6

What is the growth pattern for school, age children

Girls grow faster than boys

7

What are predictable growth patterns for adolescents

Rapid growth period, puberty
Onset of puberty for girls is between 8-14
Onset of puberty for boys is between 9-16

8

Who weighs more breast fed or bottle fed babies

Breast fed

9

When are growth charts used

From birth to 36 months

10

What is true of weight at 6 months

It doubles

11

What is true at weight in 1 yr

It should triple

12

What is BMI

Body mass index is the recommended method for screening children for over weight and under weight. BMI can be used from 2 yrs thru adulthood

13

What are the BMI parameters

Greater than 95% overweight
Between 85-95% at risk for being overweight
Less than 5% underweight

14

What is the average birth length

20 inches

15

What is the rate in which children should grow in the first year

They should grow about 10 inches in 1 year

16

What is the rate that children should grow in the 2nd year

5 inches

17

From age 3 until puberty, how much should a child grow

2.5 inches each year

18

At 2 years of age, how is a child length compared to that of an adult

2 yrs of age birth length is half of adult height

19

What is true of height at 4 yrs of age

Birth length doubles

20

What is the appropriate age range to perform head circumference

3 yrs of age and younger

21

What is true of head to chest ratio at birth

The head is larger than chest circumference by about 2 inches

22

By what age is the head equal to the chest circumference

By 24 months

23

Hydrocephele

CSF in head

24

Define gross motor development

The developmental maturation in posture, head balance, sitting, creeping, standing and walking

25

Define fine motor development

The use of hands and fingers in the pretension ( grasp) of an object

26

By 1 month what are developmental milestones

Turning head from side to side when prone
Marked head lag
Grasp reflex strong
Hand clenches on contact with rattle
Quiets when hears a voice
Cries
Comfort sounds during feeding

27

By age 2 months what are developmental milestones

POSTERIOR FONTANEL CLOSED
Less heads lag
When prone can lift head 45 degrees off table/ head bobs
Follows toy from side to side
Eyes follow moving person
Hands often open/ briefly holds objects
Keeps hands fisted 50 % of the time

28

By 3 months of age, what are developmental milestones

Holds head well/ no head lag
Holds a rattle
Follows a object in periphery
Locates sound by turning head to side
Begins to babble
Les crying during periods of wakefulness
Recognizes familiar faces and objects

29

By 4 months of age what reflexes dissapear

Moro reflex
Rooting reflex
Palmer grasp

30

At 4 months of age, what are developmental milestones

Balances head well in a sitting position
Rolls from back to side
Laughs aloud
Reaches and holds objects
Grasps objects with both hands
Carries objects to mouth
Begins to show memory
Demands attention by fussing, becomes bored if left alone

31

By 5 months of age what occurs

Beginning signs of tooth eruption

32

By 5 months of age, what are developmental milestones

Rolls fro front to back
Smiles at mirror image
Squeals
Visually pursues a dropped object
Plays with toes, takes objects directly to mouth, grasps voluntarily
Hand to hand transfer

33

What happen developmentally at 6 months of age

CHEWING AMD BITING OCCUR
BIRTH WEIGHT DOUBLES
Tonic reflex has disappeared
Can sit with support/ when held In a standing position bears almost all of weight.
Can hold a bottle/ grasp feet/ feed themselves crackers
Fears strangers/ holds arms out to be picked up
Definite likes and dislikes
Babbles one syllable words

34

What is true developmentally by 7 months of age

Sits leaning forward
Can grasp with thumb and fingers at 7-8 months
Raking objects
Develops object permanence
Responds to own name
Looks for objects out of view
Has taste preferences
Plays peekaboo
Beginning awareness and depth and space
Imitates simple acts and noises
Talks when others are taking

35

By 8 months of age, what is true of development

Bears weight on legs when supported
Sits unsupported
Releases objects at will
Reaches persistently for toys out of reach
Increasing anxiety of loss of parent
Combines syllables but does not ascribe meaning to the ( dada)

36

By 9 months of age, what developmental milestones should occur

WEANING TO A CUP FROM A BOTTLE
Pulls to a standing position
Creep on hands and knees
understands NO NO
Preference for use of dominant hand
Compares 2 cubes by bringing them together

37

By what age should infants be off the bottle

By 12 months

38

By 10 months, what developmental skills should the baby possess

THE PLANTAR GRASP HAS DISAPPEARED
Change fro prone to sitting position
Can walk while holding on to a table
Deliberately lets go of an object/ offers object to someone else
Says mama and dada with meaning
May say one word (hi bye no)

39

By 11 months, what is true of development

Continues to walk while holding onto furniture
Puts objects in a container and likes to remove it
Reacts to restrictions with frustration
Rolls ball to another

40

By 12 months of age, what occurs developmentally

WEIGHT TRIPLES FROM BIRTH WEIGHT
Walks holding someone's hand/ says 3-5 words
May attempt to stand alone/ recognizes objects by name
Can sit down for standing position without help
Attempts to build a 2 tower block/comprehends meaning of several words/ understands simple commands
Can turn pages in a book/ shows emotions such as jealousy and affection

41

When does the anterior FONTANEL close?

Abby 18 months of age

42

Are growth and development the same

No

43

When is the primary dentition (20 teeth) completed

By 30 months (6 months shy of 3 yrs)

44

By 2 yrs of age, what reflex disappears (toddler)

Babinski reflex

45

When does a toddler begin to walk without help

By 15 months

46

When does a toddler begin to walk up and down stairs one step at a time, and kick a ball forward

By 24 months

47

When does a toddler begin to jump with both feet

By 30 months

48

When does a toddler begin to walk upstairs with one hand and run

By 18 months

49

What is true of a toddlers fine motor skills by this age

Builds 2 block towers and scribbles spontaneously by 15 mnths
Builds a 3-4 tower block by 18 months
Builds a 6-7 tower block by 24 months
Builds an 8 tower block and copies a cross at 30 months

50

What is true of a toddlers development

Ritualism, use tantrums to assert independence
They can have tantrums as long as they are safe
By 15 months can use 4-6 words
By 18 months can use 10-20 words
By 24 months can use 300 words
Between 1-3 years can verbalize the need for toileting, food, or drink, can give 1st name

51

What is true of preschoolers

Can ride a tricycle,stand on one foot and broad jump at age 3
Can hop skip and catch a ball at age 4
Can jump, balance on alternate feet with eyes closed skip on alternate feet at age 5

52

When do preschoolers preschoolers begin to lace there own shoes

Age 4

53

When do preschoolers use scissors, print a few letters and numbers

By age 5

54

When do preschoolers develop the fear of the dark and going to bed

Age 3

55

What is the primary purpose for preschool programs

To faster the child's social skills

56

How many words can a 3 yr old speak

900 words, they can speak in 3-4 word sentences

57

How many words can a 4 yr old speak

1500 words
Questioning why is at its peak

58

How many words can a 5 yr old speak

2100 words they speak in 6-8 word sentences and know 4 or more colors