Pediatrics Flashcards Preview

4. STEPH PHARM EXAM 4 > Pediatrics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (24):
1

in 2008, the FDA recommended that ____ not be used to treat the common cold in kids <2

antihistamines,
decongestants,
antitussives,
expectorants

2

why was benzyl alcohol removed from use in premature infants who needed intravascular flush solutions?

metabolic acidosis
Seizures
neurologic deterioration
gasping respirations
hepatic and renal abnormalities
cardiovascular collapse
death

3

tetracyclines are contraindicated for use in ____

pregnant women
nursing mothers
children younger than 8 years

4

what are ADEs of tetracyclines?

- dental staining and defects in enamelization
- Decrease in bone growth

5

what are fluoroquinolone ADEs?

Tendonitis and tendon rupture in patients of all ages

6

who can use fluoroquinolones?

- younger than 18 years of age only for inhalation anthrax (postexposure)
- complicated UTIs and pyelo caused by E. coli
- peds patients with CF

7

what antidepressants can be used in Peds?

Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

—fluoxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine—are approved

8

what paramaters are used the most for peds dosing?

WEIGHT

DONT USE AGE

9

what is clarks-rule weight calculation?

Child’s weight in lb/ 150lb x Adult dose = child’s dose


10

what is fried's rule for VERY young dosing?

age in months/150 x adult dose = infants dose

11

who uses freid's rule?

<2

12

what is young's rule?

who is it used for?

age/age + 12 x adult dose = childs dose

used for kids 1-12

13

what chart is used to calculate body surface area?

nomogram

14

how many mL is in the following
TSP
TBSP
Oz
CUP

TSP - 5ml
TBSP - 15ml
Oz - 30ml
CUP - 240 ml

15

where is proper dropper placement into an infants mouth?

into the cheek - not on the tongue

16

In general, when is it best to switch to an adult drug dosing for medications?

18

17

At birth, a full-term infant has a gastric pH of 6-8 but what happens after that?

the gastric pH declines to 1-3 within 24 hours

18

which routes of admin of drugs can result in increased absorption in newborns

topical

19

Which drug type will have a larger distribution in a newborn than an elderly adult

hydrophilic

20

Which pathway is underdeveloped in infants

glucuronidation

21

Which of the following drugs would need to be given at higher doses in order to produce the desired physiologic response since the infant is unable to convert the drug to a more active form

morphine

22

T/F: Glomerular filtration may not be fully developed for several weeks to 1 year after birth

TRUE

23

because of a decreased plasma protein concentration and competition for sites, what 2 drug doses should be increased in premature infants?

phenobarbital
phenytoin

24

children have more ___ and less ___ in their body

more water
less fat