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Flashcards in Pediatrics Recall Deck (253):
1

Olive shaped mass

Pyloric stenosis

2

"Shoulder Sign" and "Double Tract Sign" on Barium Swallow

Pyloric stenosis

3

Surgical Procedure of Pyloric Stenosis

Ramstedt Pyloromyotomy

4

Birds Beak Sign

Volvulus

5

Inverted U Sign

Volvulus

6

Coffee Bean Sign

Volvulus

7

Failure to recanilize the lumen

Duodenal Atresia

8

Obstruction usually distal to the ampulla of vater

Duodenal Atresia

9

Bilious vomiting without abdominal distention usually noted on the 1st day of life

Duodenal Atresia

10

Double Bubble Sign

Duodenal Atresia

11

Surgical Tx of Duodenal Atresia

Duodenoduodenostomy with gastrotomy tube
Pg18 TN

12

Incomplete rotation of the intestine during fetal development

Malrotation

13

Most common type involve failure of the cecum to move into the RLQ

Malrotation

14

Remnant of the Omphalomesenteric duct

Meckel Diverticulum

15

Intermittent painless rectal bleeding and "Brick colored stool"

Meckel Diverticulum

16

Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon

Hirschprung Disease

17

Most common cause of lower intestinal obstruction in neonates;
M > F

Hirschprung Disease

18

Absence of ganglionic cells in the bowel wall beginning in the "Internal Anal Sphincter"

Hirschprung Disease

19

Absence of Meisnner and Auerbach plexus

Hirschprung Disease

20

Begins at birth with the Delayed Passage of Meconium

Hirschprung Disease

21

Pellet or Ribbon like stool

Hirschprung Disease

22

Currarino Triad

Hirschprung Disease
Pg19 TN

23

Sausage-shaped mass in the RUQ which may inc in size and firmness during a paroxysm of pain

Intussusception

24

Barium enema: "Coiled Spring Sign"

Intussusception

25

UTZ: Doughnut or Target Sign

Intussusception

26

Most common cause of non bilious vomiting

Pyloric stenosis

27

More specific for acute inflammatory pancreatic disease

Serum lipase

28

Abd Xray: Sentinel loop

Acute Pancreatitis

29

Abd Xray: Cutoff Sign: dilated transverse colon

Acute Pancreatitis

30

Abd Xray: Blurring of left psoas margin

Acute Pancreatitis

31

Severe flank pain radiating to the groin

Renal Colic from Calculi

32

Sudden onset offross or microscopic hematuria and unilateral or bilateral flank mass

Renal Vein Thrombosis

33

Gross hematuria, Periorbital edema, Hypertension, Oliguria

Acute PostStreptococcal Gromerulonephritis

34

Most common chronic glomerular disease worldwide

IgA Nephropathy

35

Bilateral flank pain masses during the neonatal period or early infancy

Polycystic Kidney Disease

36

Associated with Potter Facies

Polycystic Kidney Disease

37

Renal UTZ: enlarged and hyperechogenic kidneys with poor corticomedullary distinction

Potter Syndrome

38

Most common cause of acute renal failure in young adults

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Pg27 TN

39

Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Pg27 TN

40

Precedes more than 80% of HUS in devolped countries

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli 0157:H7

41

Peripheral Smear: Helmet cells

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Pg27 TN

42

Peripheral smear: Burr cells

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Pg27 TN

43

Peripheral smear: Fragmented RBCs

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Pg27 TN

44

Upper limit of normal protein excretion in healthy children

150mg/day

45

T-cells first detected in the thymus

7th - 8th week of gestation
Pg29 TN

46

Vital organ for immune response to blood borne antigens

Spleen

47

Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)

Pe yer's patch in the lamina propria of the SI
L ymphoid follicles in the appendix
T onsils in the pharynx
S ubmucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the upper airways & bronchi

48

A protein that creates pores on cell membranes of target cells resulting in lysis

Cytolysin

49

First line of defense against neonatal herpes virus infection

Natural Killer Cells

50

Functions of Phagocytes

Diapedesis
Chemotaxis
Phagocytosis
Killing

51

Main anaphylatoxins that provokes inflammation

C3a and C5a

52

Role in opsonization

C3b and C5b

53

B Cell Deficiency: deficiency of tyrosine kinase that blocks B cell maturation

Bruton's X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

54

B Cell Deficiency: deficiency of CD40L on activated T cell

X Linked Hyper IgM Syndrome

55

B Cell deficiency: most common IgA defiency

Selective IgA Deficiency

56

B Cell Deficiency: Delayed onset of maturation of normal IgG

Transient Agammaglobulinemia

57

T Cell Deficiency: Thymic hypoplasia and T cell specific

DiGeorge Syndrome

58

T Cell Deficiency: defective cytoskeletal gylycoprotein

Wiskott Aldrich

59

Most common T Cell Deficiency

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

60

Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

61

Defects in Phagocytosis: Deficiency in NADPH oxidase and recurrent infxn with Catalase +

Chronic Granulomatosis Disease

62

Defects in Phagocytosis: absence of CD18

Leukocyte Adhesion Defect

63

Defects in Phagocytosis: Delayed in umbilical cord sloughing

Leukocyte Adhesion Defect

64

Defects in Phagocytosis: Granule structure defect

Chediak-Hegashi Syndrome

65

Defects in Phagocytosis: Recurrent bacterial infxn and partial albinism

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

66

Defects in Phagocytosis: Deficiency in enzyme needed in HMP

Glucose 6 Phosphate Deficiency

67

Defects in Phagocytosis: Hemolytic Crisis

Glucose 6 Phosphate Deficiency

68

Defects in Phagocytosis: Granule ENZYME deficiency

Myeloperoxidase Deficiency

69

Defects in Phagocytosis: Deficiency in TNF-gamma

Job's Syndrome

70

Defects in Complement: Deficiency in regulatory of protein

Hereditary Angioedema

71

Screening Test for Macrophage Deficiency

Nitroblue Tetrazolium Test
Respiratory Burst Assay

72

Screening Test for Complement Deficiency

CH50

73

Rachitic Rosary

Rickets

74

Harrison Groove

Rickets

75

Valgus deformity of 1 leg with Varus deformity of the other leg

Windswept Deformity
(Rickets)

76

Angular Cheilosis

Perleche

77

Magenta Tongue

Glossitis

78

Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia and Death

Pellagra

79

Pellagra

Niacin Deficiency
(Vit. B3)

80

Microcytic Anemia

Vit B6 Deficiency

81

Megaloblastic Anemia

Vitamin B12 deficiency

82

Scorbutic Rosary

Scurvy

83

Corckscrew Hair

Scurvy

84

Inadequate CALORIC intake + non-edematous

Marasmus

85

Starvation type of diarrhea

Marasmus

86

Insufficient intake of PROTEIN of good biologic value

Kwashirkor

87

Streaky red or grey hair in dark-haired children

Hypochromotrichia
(Kwashirkor)

88

Extreme Exogenous Obesity

Pickwickian Syndrome

89

Severe cardiorespiratory distress with alveolar hypoventilation

Pickwickian Syndrome

90

Most severe form of neural tube defect (Dysraphism)

Meningocele

91

Failure of the neural tube to close spontaneously between the 3rd and 4th wk in utero

Meningocele

92

Due to failure of closure of the ROSTRAL NEUROPORE

Anencephaly

93

Absent cerebral hemisphere and cerebellum with a residue of brainstem

Anencephaly

94

Absent cerebral convolutions and poor formed sylvian fissure

Lissencephaly (Agyria)

95

Faulty neuroblast migration

Lissencephaly (Agyria)

96

Unilateral or bilateral clefts within the cerebral hemispheres

Schizencephaly

97

Presence of cysts or cavities within the brain

Porencephaly

98

Develop during perinatal/postnatal period due to problems of arterial or venous circulation

Pseudoporencephalic cysts

99

Defective cleavage of the prosencephalon and inadequate induction of the forebrain structures

Holoprosencephaly

100

Impaired circulation and absorption of CSF from increase production of CSF

Hydrocephalus

101

Obstruction within the ventricular system

Obstructive or Non-communicating type of Hydrocephalus

102

Abnormality of the Aqueduct or a lesion in the 4th Ventricle

Obstructive or Non-communicating type of Hydrocephalus

103

Aqueductal Stenosis

Obstructive or Non-communicating type of Hydrocephalus

104

Obliteration of the subarachnoid cisterns

Non-Obstructive or Communicating type of Hydrocephalus

105

Malfunction of the arachnoid villi

Non-Obstructive or Communicating type of Hydrocephalus

106

Follows a subarachnoid hemorrhage

Non-Obstructive or Communicating type of Hydrocephalus

107

Leukemic infiltrates

Non-Obstructive or Communicating type of Hydrocephalus

108

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid Plexus

109

Setting-Sun Sign

Hydrocephalus

110

Long-Tract Sign

Brisk DTR's
Babinski sign
Clonus
Spacity
(Hydrocephalus)

111

Percussion of Skull

Cracked Pot Sensation
(Hydrocephalus)

112

Separation of Sutures in the brain

Macewen Sign
(Hydrocephalus)

113

Foreshortened Occipit

Chiari Malformation

114

Prominent Occiput

Dandy-Walker Malformation

115

Provide temporary relief by reducing the rate of CSF production

Acetazolamide and Furosemide

116

Paroxysmal, time-limited changes in motor activity and/or behavior that result from abnormal electric activity in the brain

Seizures / Convulsions

117

Present when 2 or more unprovoked seizures occur at an interval greater than 24hrs apart

Epilepsy

118

Consciousness RETAINED seizure

Simple Seizure

119

Consciousness IMPAIRED seizure

Complex Seizures

120

Sudden cessation of motor activity or speech with a blank facial expression or flickering of the eyelids

Absence Seizures

121

Seizure that NEVER associated with an aura

Absence Seizures

122

Seizure that rarely persist longer than 30 seconds

Absence Seizures

123

Seizure that do not lose body tone

Absence Seizures

124

Seizure associated with an aura

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

125

Seizure cause loss of sphincter control

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

126

Repetitive seizures consisting of brief, often symmetric muscular contractions with loss of body tone and falling or slumping forward

Myoclonic Seizures

127

Hypsarrhythmia and begins at 4-5 months old

Infantile Spams

128

Management of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures

P: Phenobarb
P: Phenytoin
Ca: Carbamazepine
La: Lamotrigine
Va: Valproic acid
G: Gabapentine

129

Management of Absence Seizures

E: Ethoxsuximide
Va: Valproic acid

130

Managment of Infantile Spasm

Vigabatrin

131

Restricted CHO and CHON

Ketogenic Diet

132

Most common seizure disorder in childhood

Febrile Seizures

133

Febrile Seizures: Peak age of onset

14 - 18 months old

134

Seizure occurs only ONCE in 24hrs

Simple Febrile Seizures

135

Focal seizures activity

Complex Febrile Seizures

136

One seizure lasting 30 minutes or multiple seizures during 30 minutes without regaining consciousness

Status Epilepticus

137

Breakthrough Seizures

Status Epilepticus

138

Drug for Status Epilepticus

Phenytoin

139

Recurrent headache with symptoms free intervals and at least 3 criteria (F R U A N T)

Migraine
Family hx
Relief following sleep
Unilateral loc
Aura
Abd pain
Nausea and vomiting
Throbbing in character

140

Type of Migraine: Most prevalent type

Migraine without Aura

141

Type of migraine: Throbbing or pounding, and intense nausea and vomiting

Migraine without Aura

142

Type of Migraine: Light Headedness, Photophobia, Osmophobia, Phonophobia

Migraine without Aura

143

Type of Migraine: Sensory symptoms (blurred of vision, photopsia, fortification spectra)

Migraine with Aura

144

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

Migraine with Aura

145

Type of Migraine: Good prognosis in older childrena or adolescent

Hemiplegic Aura

146

Type of Migraine: Vertigo, tinnitus, diplopia, scotoma and ataxia

Basilar type Migraine

147

Type of Migraine: Altered consciousness with seizures

Basilar type Migraine

148

Type of Migraine: Complete resolution after the attack

Basilar type Migraine

149

Type of Migraine: after deep sleep, child resumes normal activity

Cyclic Vomiting

150

Type of Migraine: Complete Resolution of Symptoms between attacks

Cylic Vomiting

151

Type of Migraine: Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting and Pallor

Abdominal Migraine

152

Persistent headache lasting for more than 3 days

Status Migrainosus

153

Headache common after the onset of puberty

Tension or Stress Headache

154

Waxes and Wanes

Tension or Stress Headache

155

Band like tightness or pressure

Tension or Stress Headache

156

NOT associated with nausea and vomiting

Tension or Stress Headache

157

Neurocutaneous Syndromes

Tuberous Sclerosis
Neurofibromatosis

158

Defect in differentiation of the primitive ECTODERM

Neurofibromatosis

159

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Gene 1 encodes:

Protein HAMARTIN

160

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Gene 2 encodes:

Protein Tuberin

161

Candle Dripping Appearance

Tuberous Sclerosis

162

High Index of suspicion when assessing a child with infantile spasm

Tuberous Sclerosis

163

Ash Leaf pigmentation

Tuberous Sclerosis

164

Shagreen Patch (lumbosacral region)

Tuberous Sclerosis

165

Adolescence presents with subungual or periungual fibromas from the fingers and toes

Tuberous Sclerosis

166

Neurofibromatosis 1

Von Recklinghausen

167

Affects chromosome 17

Von Recklinghausen

168

Lisch Nodules

Von Recklinghausen

169

Café Au Lait Macules that spare the face

Von Recklinghausen

170

Axillary or Inguinal Freckling

Von Recklinghausen

171

Optic Glioma

Von Recklinghausen

172

Paroxysmal, time-limited changes in motor activity and/or behavior that result from abnormal electric activity in the brain

Seizures / Convulsions

173

Present when 2 or more unprovoked seizures occur at an interval greater than 24hrs apart

Epilepsy

174

Consciousness RETAINED seizure

Simple Seizure

175

Consciousness IMPAIRED seizure

Complex Seizures

176

Sudden cessation of motor activity or speech with a blank facial expression or flickering of the eyelids

Absence Seizures

177

Seizure that NEVER associated with an aura

Absence Seizures

178

Seizure that rarely persist longer than 30 seconds

Absence Seizures

179

Seizure that do not lose body tone

Absence Seizures

180

Seizure associated with an aura

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

181

Seizure cause loss of sphincter control

Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

182

Repetitive seizures consisting of brief, often symmetric muscular contractions with loss of body tone and falling or slumping forward

Myoclonic Seizures

183

Hypsarrhythmia and begins at 4-5 months old

Infantile Spams

184

Management of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures

P: Phenobarb
P: Phenytoin
Ca: Carbamazepine
La: Lamotrigine
Va: Valproic acid
G: Gabapentine

185

Management of Absence Seizures

E: Ethoxsuximide
Va: Valproic acid

186

Managment of Infantile Spasm

Vigabatrin

187

Restricted CHO and CHON

Ketogenic Diet

188

Most common seizure disorder in childhood

Febrile Seizures

189

Febrile Seizures: Peak age of onset

14 - 18 months old

190

Seizure occurs only ONCE in 24hrs

Simple Febrile Seizures

191

Focal seizures activity

Complex Febrile Seizures

192

One seizure lasting 30 minutes or multiple seizures during 30 minutes without regaining consciousness

Status Epilepticus

193

Breakthrough Seizures

Status Epilepticus

194

Drug for Status Epilepticus

Phenytoin

195

Recurrent headache with symptoms free intervals and at least 3 criteria (F R U A N T)

Migraine
Family hx
Relief following sleep
Unilateral loc
Aura
Abd pain
Nausea and vomiting
Throbbing in character

196

Type of Migraine: Most prevalent type

Migraine without Aura

197

Type of migraine: Throbbing or pounding, and intense nausea and vomiting

Migraine without Aura

198

Type of Migraine: Light Headedness, Photophobia, Osmophobia, Phonophobia

Migraine without Aura

199

Type of Migraine: Sensory symptoms (blurred of vision, photopsia, fortification spectra)

Migraine with Aura

200

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

Migraine with Aura

201

Type of Migraine: Good prognosis in older childrena or adolescent

Hemiplegic Aura

202

Type of Migraine: Vertigo, tinnitus, diplopia, scotoma and ataxia

Basilar type Migraine

203

Type of Migraine: Altered consciousness with seizures

Basilar type Migraine

204

Type of Migraine: Complete resolution after the attack

Basilar type Migraine

205

Type of Migraine: after deep sleep, child resumes normal activity

Cyclic Vomiting

206

Type of Migraine: Complete Resolution of Symptoms between attacks

Cylic Vomiting

207

Type of Migraine: Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting and Pallor

Abdominal Migraine

208

Persistent headache lasting for more than 3 days

Status Migrainosus

209

Headache common after the onset of puberty

Tension or Stress Headache

210

Waxes and Wanes

Tension or Stress Headache

211

Band like tightness or pressure

Tension or Stress Headache

212

NOT associated with nausea and vomiting

Tension or Stress Headache

213

Neurocutaneous Syndromes

Tuberous Sclerosis
Neurofibromatosis

214

Defect in differentiation of the primitive ECTODERM

Neurofibromatosis

215

In meningitis, what do you do next if Lumbar Puncture is traumatic?

Gram stain
Blood Culture
Glucose Level

216

Partial treatment of meningitis

Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime for 7-10 days

217

Drug use for H. Influenza meningitis

Dexamethasone IV

218

In meningitis, drug of choice for Penicillin-resistant

Vancomycin

219

CSF Analysis: NORMAL glucose, normal to slight increase protein and (+) LYMPHOCYTES

Viral Meningitis

220

Most common location of brain abscess

Cerebrum (80%)

221

Immune-Mediated Neuromuscular Blockade

Myasthenia Gravis

222

Myasthenia Gravis: Earliest and most constant sign

Ptosis
Some degree of extra-ocular muscle weakness

223

SSx: Fatigue of muscles, Proximal muscle weakness, more symptomatic late in a day and life threatening (respi muscles involvement)

Myasthenia Gravis

224

Though to be the site of production of autoantibodies against Acetylcholine receptors

Thymoma

225

Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy that is not associated with other cranial neuropathies

Bell's Palsy

226

Develops abruptly about 2 weeks after a systemic viral infection (?)

Bell's Palsy
(EBV, HSV, Mumps virus)

227

Acute Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

228

Post-infectious polyneuropathy involving mainly MOTOR

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

229

Landry Ascending Paralysis

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

230

Guillain-Barre Syndrome physical findings are associated with this condition

Cranial Nerve Deficits
Miller-Fisher Syndrome

231

Acute Ophthalmoplegia, Ataxia and Areflexia

Miller-Fisher Syndrome

232

Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Last function to recover

Tendon reflex

233

Guillain-Barre Syndrome: Last to resolve

Lower Extremity Weakness

234

CSF Analysis: INCREASE protein, normal glucose, no pleocytosis

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

235

Tx for rapidly progressive ascending paralysis

IVIG 0.4gms/kg/day for 5 consecutive days

236

Guillain-Barre Syndrome for RELAPSE

High dose pulse Methylprednisolone IV

237

Static Encephalopathy

Cerebral Palsy

238

Delayed walking or walks in tiptoes

Spastic Hemiplagia
(Cerebral Palsy)

239

Commando Crawl

Spastic Diplegia
(Cerebral Palsy)

240

Homer-Wright Rosettes

Medulloblastoma

241

Medulloblastoma oftenly found in

Cerebellum

242

Infratentorial Tumors

Cerebellar astrocytoma
Brain stem glioma
Ependymoma
Medulloblastoma

243

Most common and with the best prognosis of infratentorial tumors

Cerebellar Astrocytoma

244

Supratentorial Tumors

Craniopharyngioma
Optic nerve glioma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Astrocytoma

245

Pressure to optic chiasma produces bitemporal visual field defects

Cranipharyngioma

246

Gray-brown adherent pseudomembrane

Diphtheria
(Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

247

Bull-neck appearance

Diphtheria
(Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

248

Leather-like adherent membrane

Diphtheria
(Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

249

Whooping Cough

Pertussis
(Bordatella pertusis)

250

Most infectious stage of pertussis

Catarrhal stage

251

Explosive outburst in series of 5-10 rapid coughs in one expiration and ending in a high pitch forceful inspiration gasp

Whooping Cough

252

CBC result of leukomoid reaction with absolute lymphocytosis

Pertussis
(Bordatella pertusis)

253

Complications of Pertussis:
(H S O A P)

Hemorrhage (subconjunctival / intracranial)
Seizures
Otitis media
Atelectasis, apnea, activation of latent TB
Pneumonia