First A in APGAR
Appearance, 0 - blue/pale, 1 - pink trunk, 2 - all pink
P in APGAR
Pulse, 0 - 0, 1 - 100
G in APGAR
Grimace with stimulation, 0 - None, 1 - Grimace, 2 - grimace and cough
Second A in APGAR
Activity: 0 - Limp, 1 - Some activity, 2 - Active
R in APGAR
Respirations: 0 - None, 1 - Irregular, 2 - Regular
If a child has mastoiditis, what is the next best step in management?
CT head and neck to reveal extent of infection
Down Syndrome cancer risks
Increase ALL, Decrease solid organ tumors
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Normal development in early childhood then loss of acquired skills. Onset 2-10 yrs. Boys
Normal development until 2 yrs. then loss of acquired skills. Onset 2-10 yrs. Girls. Seizures
14 Days of Erythromycin (a macrolide) for pt. and close contacts
Tx for Kawasaki Dz?
IV Ig and ASA
Classic signs of peritonsillar abscess
Fever, Trismus (can't open mouth), "Hot potato" voice, Peritonsillar swelling, Uvula deviation
Ambiguous genitalia ddx?
5-alpha-reductase deficiency, Androgen Insensitivity
Behavior mod, DDAVP, Imipramine (tricyclic)
Jejunal atresia keywords
bilious, triple bubble, d/t vascular accident in utero causing intestinal necrosis
Duodenal atresia keywords
bilious 1st day of life, double bubble, d/t failure of duodenum recanalize, assoc. w/ polyhydramnios
Hirschprung disease keywords
bilious, delayed passage of meconium age >48 hrs, Dx: Rectal biopsy gold standard
Necrotizing enterocolitis keywords
bilious, bloody stool, thrombocytopenia and unstable vitals, Dx: XRAY showing intramural air
NON-bilious, projectile vomiting, 3-6 wks age, olive mass, Dx: US
What is the most common nutritional deficiency in children?
When can cow's milk be given?
Not until 1 y.o.
Infectious mononucleosis keywords
EBV, splenomegaly, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency
recurrent bacterial infections, delayed umbilical cord separation, CD18 deficient, No Neutrophils in infected tissues but levels increased in blood (cause they can't migrate)
Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
Auto Rec, deficient mature B cells and T cells d/t adenosine toxicity
Chronic Granulomatous disease
impaired respiratory burst --> ineffective intracellular killing, Dx: (-) Nitroblue Tetrazolium test --> yellow is seen (normally should be blue)
Cerebral Palsy keywords
equinovarus deformity, clasp knife resistance
galactose-1-p- uridyl transferase deficiency causing: jaundice, hepatomegaly, catarcts, hypoglycemia, Tx: Soy formula
Congenital CMV keywords
microcephaly, cataracts/chorioretinitis, periventricular calcifications, sensorineural hearing loss
22q11 microdeletion, decrease T cell production, wide set eyes, small mandible, holosystolic murmur/VSD/Tetralogy of Fallot, neonate with hypocalcemic seizures
Klinefelter (47XXY) cancer risk?