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Psyc 351 > Peer Relations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Peer Relations Deck (58):
1

number conflicts per hour

when do they start

56

when the youngest is able to fight

2

siblings get along best when:

they are the same sex
neither is emotional
younger enters adolescence
parents don't pick favourites
parents have a warm relationship w/eachother

3

many siblings =

more rules
less attention
fewer resources/child (time and $)

4

fewer siblings =

higher IQ
more achievement motivation
higher occupational achievement

5

high levels of sibling aggression can lead to

low self regulation
risky sexual behaviour

6

sibling relationship post divorce

support each other OR compete for parental affection
older may blame younger half sibling born to both parents in new relationship

7

birth order person

Alfred Adler

not supported

8

first born

birth order

mentor and leader
conscientious
conservative/reserved
less open and agreeable

9

middle child

birth order

more insecure
don't feel like they belong
relationships aren't as important
don't seek limelight

10

last born

birth order

attention seeking
not used to sharing
ahead of other's their own age bc they hang out with older siblings

11

only children

better communication skills - forced to interact w/adults

inc self esteem
achievement motivation
intellectual competence
good peer relations

12

interactions begin @

2 yrs:
7-11 yrs:

6 months

2: interact w/peers 10% of time
7-11: 40% of time

13

free play

unplanned activities (rather than soccer, piano, etc.)

fosters cognitive development - divergent thinking
social skills
creativity
emotional wellbeing
understanding the world

14

non social play

1st yr

play alone (solitary)

15

solitary engaged play

non social

constructive and purposeful (reading, puzzle, etc.)

can elicit enjoyment
linked w/positive outcomes in introverted children

16

reticence

non social

disengagement
wandering around
staring into space

linked w/negative outcomes

17

parallel play

interest in others
little real interaction
work on puzzles or toys in same room

18

associative play

sharing but pursuing own goals

share blocks but build own structures

19

social play

cooperation
pretend play
shared goal

20

group play

social play

large group activity
3+ peers
tag, playing house, etc.

21

dyadic play

social play

one on one with single peer

dolls, catch, talking

22

pretend play

exploring new ideas
perspective taking (TOM)
symbolism
cooperation

23

imaginary friends

inc social understanding
inc emotional IQ

previously believed to = social/cognitive delays

24

friendship @
5
8
10
adolescence

5: friends are based on similarities (name, neighborhood)

8: friends based on favourites (color, soccer team)

10: friends based on trust, cooperation and social skills

adolescence: friends based on loyalty, intimacy, sharing/disclosure

25

outcomes of friendship

social support (more support than parents in adolescence)

resolving disputes amicably

following rules
social problem solving

26

unsupportive friendships

outcomes:

less school engagement
more disruptive in school
insecure attachement
controlling parents

27

close supportive friendships

inc liking school
reduce impact of negative family environment

28

peer pressure

majority is good (college, going out and being social)

can be bad (drugs, skipping school)

weaker when about trivial things

more likely to succumb unless there is an external rule (parents, religion, law)

29

good peer pressure

bad peer pressure

good:
less changes over time
similar pressures throughout life

bad:
inc until grade 9 (peak) - then drops dramatically

30

clique
crowd
gang

peer group you join voluntarily

people who share stereotypes (jocks, nerds)

organized group - often engage in illegal activities

31

girl friendships

"best friend" focused
dyadic play (2)

hierarchical structure w/ one more powerful girl + group of followers

exclusive groups - strict rules of acceptance
jealousy to new members

trust, intimacy and disclosure @ earlier age than boys

more intimate friendships than boys - shorter in duration

32

corumination

extensively discuss problems and negative thought feelings

anxious/depressed GIRLS are more susceptible to the anxiety/depression of their friends

reinforce their friends problems when trying to offer support

33

boy friendships

larger, more informal associations

group play

less jealousy to new members
more jealous with intimate partners

less focus on intimacy, trust and disclosure
more focus on cooperation and social skills

later in life friendship structures may become more rigid (frats, teams)

34

other gender friendships

same + other gender:
higher social skills
liked by everyone

other gender only:
lower social skills
rejected by same sex peers

35

prosocial

cooperation
considering others
assertive
emotional regulation
high achievement

36

withdrawal

avoid others, sulking
lack of social competence

lacking assertive social skills necessary to form bonds

don't know how to handle things -- may come off as rude but are just anxious and can't explain

dec self esteem
anxiety, depression, loneliness

causes: authoritarian or helicopter parenting

37

aggression

over control and dominance
lack of coping
physical or verbal

38

bullying

don't label as "bully" anymore - most kids use bullying sometimes

academic problems
anger management
delinquency and crime
physical abuse

39

social aggression

rumors, exclusion, withholding friendship, etc.

used to inc power and popularity status - simultaneously dec popularity of others

bonding experience among popular people

victims can be hurt worse than w/ physical aggression

best at it when they can switch from prosocial to socially aggressive -- don't get caught

40

social aggression links

sociopathy
high IQ
strong desire for popularity

good communication skills
good social understanding

permissive and authoritarian parents

41

physical aggression links

authoritarian parents
(modelling)

high activity and low mood temperament

poor communication skills
poor social understanding
poor coping strategies

42

sociometric status

measure of peer acceptance

rate which kids you like to play with and which you don't

43

determining factors of sociometric status

attractiveness
athleticism (boys more)
status of one's friends can boost your own popularity

44

social impact

positive nominations + negative nominations

highest = controversial
high = popular and rejected
moderate = average
low = neglected

45

social preference

positive nominations - negative nominations

highest = popular
moderate = average and controversial
low = rejected and neglected

46

rejected

high negative, low positive

externalizing problems (aggression, controlling)

lack of coping skills (want to get even)

internalizing problems

physical appearance, disabilities, "different"

less developed TOM

aggressive or withdrawn

47

neglected

no nominations

internalized problems (shy, withdrawn)

unable to interact and form relationships w/ peers
(no enemies, but no friends)

dec self esteem

48

popular

many positive, few negative

prosocial
assertive, high social skills

maintain friendships

"cool"

may use aggression to achieve goals

attractive

49

controversial

many positive & negative

dominant and forceful

socially aggressive
(nice to some, mean to others)

holding power = positive reaction
denying power = negative reaction

"cool" within the group, but arrogant to others

50

average

moderate amounts of positive & negative

51

rich get richer hyp

social compensation

outgoing children benefit from technology -- use it more than lonely/anxious teens

social media is beneficial for lonely/anxious/depressed teens
- method of obtaining intimacy with others

52

low avoidance
low approach

unsociable

solitary engaged play

53

low avoidance
high approach

social

group play
dyadic play

54

high avoidance
low approach

avoidant

retinence

55

high avoidance
high approach

shy

retinance
parallel play
dyadic play

56

causes of withdrawal

authoritarian or helicopter parents

57

causes of physical aggression

authoritarian parents

58

causes of social aggression

authoritarian or permissive parents