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Flashcards in People Deck (39):
1

Dias

First to sail to the tip of South Africa

2

Vasco De Gama

First to sail all the way from Europe to India

3

Magellan

Portuguese sailor who organised expeditions for Spain
Almost completed the fist circumnavigation

4

Columbus

Believed that you could get to Asia by going west (not an outlandish theory at the time)
Denied by Portugal because he asked for ships
Cartographers thought that he was underestimating the distance
Denied by England and Spain
Finally gets the men and ships he needs from Ferdinand and Isabelle (Spain)
Dies thinking that he made it to Asia when he really made it to the Caribbean

5

Amerigo Vespucci

Italian working for the Spanish
First to figure out that south America is a separate continent
America is named after Amerigo

6

John Cabot

Citizen of Venice
Looking for a northwest passage
Henry 7th and England
Financed by the Bristol Merchants (1 ship and 18 men)
Sailed to North America, first British claim
More voyages, sunk in a Hurricane

7

Balboa

First to cross over panama and get to the Pacific

8

Ponce de Leon

Spanish exploration of Florida

9

Cortes

Large group, 600 men
Establishes Veracruz in Mexico
No official sanctions
Natives believed that he is a god (Quetzalcoatl)
Sinks all of his ships and forces his group to move on into Mexico
Finds a Mayan translator (a shipwrecked Spaniard)- very important to his success

10

Marina

Given to Cortes
Speaks Mayan and the Aztec language

11

The "fat Cacique"

Spanish word for leader
leader of Cempola

12

Montezuma

Leader of present day Mexico (Aztec)
Seized and taken prisoner by Cortez
Spanish take complete control of Aztec empire

13

Pizzaro

South America
Explores and takes over Inca empire

14

Jacque Cartier

French explorer
Explores the St. Lawrence river (connects Atlantic to great lakes)
Montreal

15

John Calvin

Leader of pilgrims and puritans
Important to the NA story
Created Calvinism

16

The Tudors

England
Henry 7th marries his son (Arthur) to the daughter (Catherine) of the king of Spain
Arthur dies so Catherine marries Henry's second son (Henry 8th)
Catherine of Aragon- no male child (only daughter, Mary)

17

Henry 8th

Protestant England with
Uses protestant church to divorce Catherine
Marries Anne- no boys (Elizabeth)
Encourages trade and builds navy
Tries to control Irish
1 son- Edward (dies young)

18

Queen Mary

Daughter of Catherine and Henry 8th
Catholic, tries to change England back to Catholicism
Dies without having any children

19

Queen Elizabeth

Daugher of Anne and Henry 8th
Comes back after Mary dies
protestant
conflict with Spain

20

The Sea Dogs

Drake, Gilbert, Raleigh
Sailors/explorers, English, Second sons
Fought in Ireland for Elizabeth
Elizabeth encourages illegal trade (attacking the Spanish)

21

Drake

English explorer/sailor
one of the sea dogs
defeat of the Spanish armada
circumnavigation of the globe

22

John Hawkins

First Englishman involved in slave trade
Stole from the Portuguese and sold to the Spanish in the new world

23

Gilbert and Frobisher

Veterans of the Spanish war
Looking for a northwest passage
Gilbert: wanted a permanent settlement/base in NA
Half brother is Raleigh
His ship sinks

24

Richard Hakluyt

Map maker/geographer
Discourse on western planting- written to convince the queen that they needed a colony in the new world
Reasons:
1. Christianize natives
2. Base for attacks on Spain
3. Provide goods for England that they are buying from the Spanish
4. Market for the things England produces
5. "safety valve" for excess population
6. Way station for passage to the east

25

Raleigh and Virginia

"joint stock company"
Supported by Elizabeth

26

John White

Lead a group to Roanoke
Went back to England for more supplies

27

Sir Thomas Smith

English Businessman
Powerful Merchant

28

Squanto

Spoke English
Captured and brought to Spain, escapes and makes it back to his home
Helped pilgrims on the Mayflower with planting crops
Acts as a diplomat

29

Separatists/Pilgrims

Plymouth rock
Anti-Anglican
Protestant- predestination, primitive church, similar to Calvinism
Land on territory not covered by the charter

30

Puritans

Massachusetts bay
Increasing religious intolerance in England
King Charles the first
Bishop Laud and the great Migration- 20,000 Puritans go to New England

31

Governor John Winthrop

no religious tolerance

32

Anne Hutchinson

Religious discussion
Put on trial and expelled

33

Roger Williams

Rhode Island
"Separation of Church and state"
Flees to Rhode Island, buys the land from the natives
Religious tolerance

34

Calvert/Lord Baltimore

Establishes Maryland
From England
Learns from Virginia's mistakes

35

Henry Hudson

1609
Starts the Dutch West Indies Company

36

Oliver Cromwell

Cromwell and the roundheads
"Lord Protector"- head of the new government after the English civil war
First English ruler to implement mercantilism
Gets involved in a war with the Dutch, England wins

37

Charles 2nd

Restoration of the Stuarts
Not vindictive but rewards loyalists
restoration colonies-
-Carolina and Jersey
-populate with overflow from west indies
-close ties to the west indies
Admiral Penn restores the monarchy

38

Quakers

Pennsylvania
"society of friends"
Dislike church of England
Believe that everyone contains the light of God- everyone is equal
Don't need a minister- all can talk at meetings
even women are considered equal
pacifists

39

William Penn

his father put Charles 2nd back on the throne
"Grant of Pennsylvania" from Stuarts to Penns to pay debt
Pacifist, Quaker (disappointment to his father)
Sets up a community for Quakers and pacifists
-tolerant community
-democracy
-positive community with the natives
-refuge