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Flashcards in Perception Deck (25):
1

perception=

process of interpretation of sensory data

2

sensation=

physical stimulation of sense organs by molecules or particles

3

dogma of structuralism=

perception is the build up of individual sensations

4

dogma of gestalt=

whole is more than the sum of its parts

5

dogma of direct perception=

sensations are rich and involve no cognition or mediation, rather the sensations themselves give enough information so no top down is needed

6

dogma of contructivism=

perception is based on expectation

7

what is the most recent theory of perception and what does it entail?

analysis by synthesis (Neisser) -model of perception that combines bottom up and top down mechanisms

8

what are the 3 laws of structuralism?

webers law, law of specific nerve energies (muellers law) and absolute threshold of just noticeable difference

9

webers law=

size of just noticeable difference is proportional to the original stimulus value

10

law of specific nerve energies=muellers law=

each nerve is excited by one kind of energy, and stimulation of that nerve is seen by the brain as being that kind of energy (ex push eyeball see flashes light)

11

absolute threshold=

minimum amount of sensory stimulation required to experience something on 50% of occasions

12

critical evaluation of structuralism:

describing the percept in terms of just physical values doesn't capture the complexity of perceptual information

13

what is the overarching law of gestalt?

the law of precision, which is that perception is as good as conditions allow and is constructed according to economy and parsimony

14

what are the 6 sub laws of gestalt?

common fate, proximity, symmetry, closure, continuity,similarity

15

what are the 3 considerations of direct perception?

optic flow (change in optic array due to movement), texture gradients (allows depth clues), affordances (abstract properties known without previous experience)

16

critical evaluation of gestalt:

identifies lots of laws and shows perception is more than the sum of its parts, however it is descriptive rather than explanatory and only describes 2d rather than 3d perception

17

critical evaluation for direct perception:

gives unambigious info about external world and of the ability to pick up on information without inference, however it doesn't explain mistaken perceptions and illusions and expectation (ex Ames room)

18

thesis for constructivism:

perception involves looking beyond immediately given evidences of senses

19

constructivism gives an account of monocular and binocular vision:

perceived size= size on retina +depth cues -->ecological validity

20

critical evaluation of constructivism:

it is the only one to explain illusions, but doesn't explain why the top would influence the bottom.

21

patient SB:

example for constuctivism, gained sight through cornea transplant and although sensations were normal, emotional responses to sensations were traumatic which indicates top down influence

22

blindsight=

damage to v1( occipital lobe), cortically blind but can guess above chance-due to preserved pathways that bypass v1

23

prosopagnosia=

damage to fusiform gyrus (temporal lobe)- disorder of face perception- can date damage using famous faces

24

spatial neglect=

damage to posterior parietal cortex, results in disorder of attention to stimuli on one side

25

split brain=

due to cutting of corpus callosum which connects the hemispheres, ex. can't vocalise objects in L visual field because info from left is relayed in R brain but then can't get into L side where language centre (Brocas) is. also, can draw over with left hand but not right