Perception and Attention Flashcards Preview

Biological and Cognitive Foundations > Perception and Attention > Flashcards

Flashcards in Perception and Attention Deck (33):
1

sensation

absorb direct stimuli through organs

2

transduction

conversion of stimuli to neural stimlulus

3

attention

focus on resources to process information

4

perception

organizing information

5

Why do we perceive?

 Because we move and interact. Action is central. We identify objects and events by approaching, avoiding, and interacting with others

6

How do we process data?

The data we get are ambiguous and it is frequently noisy. This is an inverse problem where we have the answer and we have to understand where it came from. We use heuristics to decide

7

Types of Perception

Bottom-Up processing: Starts with the sense and goes up to the brain
Top-down processing: starts with the brain and goes down to the sensory organs. Knowledge, experience, and expectations inform this.

8

Recognition-by-components theory

established by Biederman (1987). We perceive objects by perceiving elementary features called geons

part of bottom-up processing

9

geons

3-D objects in our mind. They contain:

high discriminiability
resistant to visual noise
they are distinct
they have view invariance (can be identified from different angles)

10

principle of componential recovery

when enough information is given, you can recognize the object

11

Top-down Processing

makes inferences based on context and other perceptions. It occurs quickly, automatically

12

Size as a function of Bottom-up and Top-down processing

In bottom-up processing, size is the image on the retina

In top-down processing, size is the perceived distance of an object (size constancy). Size is relative to other objects in the environement

13

How does top-down processing effect other senses

It effects taste by making bitter things seem more bitter when you are expecting something sweet

It effects the amount we think something weighs based on it's size

It effects language processing by making sense of something that is similar to language, but is not in fact language

14

Helmholtz's Theory of Unconscious Inference

some perceptions come from unconscious assumptions of the environment

related to top-down processing

15

likelihood principle

we perceive the world in a way that is most likely based on our experience

related to top-down processing

16

"Old" view of perceptual organization

Based on structuralism. Perception is made by adding up sensations

17

"New" view of perceptual organization

Based on Gestalt. The mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization based on what usually occurs in the environment

18

Laws of perceptual organization (6)

law of similarity
law of good continuation
law of good figure
law of proximity or nearness
law of common fate
law of familiarity

 

19

heuristics

fast and usually correct
 

light-from-above heuristic: light comes from above so we perceive shadows as specific information about depth and distance
occlusion heuristic: if an object is partially covered by a smaller, occluding object, the larger one is seen as continuing behind the smaller occluder

20

algorithms 

procedures guaranteed to solve the problem

these are slow, and leads to a definite result

21

physical regularities

regularly occuring physical properties

22

semantic regularities

relate to meaning of the scene

23

Are stimuli special?

biological motion, faces, and speech are said to be special stimuli because these are things that occur regularly

24

experience-dependent plasticity

changes in the way neurons respond based on a stimulus

this change can happen through a learned task like the Greebles, or it can happen during development in the case of the "sensitive period" for cats

25

How do we combine information to have one perceptual unified experience?

This has yet to be answered. It could be due to temporal dynamics. We study the answer to this question by looking at animal models, people with dissociations in their brain, and illusory conjunctions

26

attention

the process of concentrating on specific features of the environment or on thoughts and activities
it is sensitive, limited, and both overt and covert

27

selective attention

the ability to focus on 1 stimulus and ignore others

28

models of selective attention

spotlight model: attention is a spotlight on a scene

zoom-lens model: we are zooming in on something 

29

filter models of selective attention

early selection model: screeing things out early in the process based on physical characteristics

late-selection model: screening based on meaning

30

dichotic listening

when presented different messages in each ear, people can't report content of unattended message, but they can state that there was a message and what the gender of the speaker is

31

task load

refers to how hard it is to do a task

high-load task uses the most brain power, leaving few resources for other tasks

low-load task uses less brain power, which leaves resources for other tasks

32

inattentional blindness

a stimulus that is attended, but is not perceived even though a person might be looking at it.

33

change blindness

looking at two versions of an image and spotting differences is difficult