Pericardial Disease Flashcards Preview

Small Animal Internal Medicine > Pericardial Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pericardial Disease Deck (28):
1

In which is pericardial effusion more common, dogs or cats?

Dogs

2

What is the most common congenital problem with the pericardium?

PPDH = peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia

3

What is a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia?

An abnormal communication between the peritoneum and pericardium at ventral midline

4

Does a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia involve the pleural space in any way?

No

5

True or False: A peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is caused by trauma.

FALSE - but trauma can facilitate movement of abdominal organs through the defect.

6

Which is more common, congential pericardial disease or acquired pericardial disease?

Acquired pericardial disease

7

When does cardiac tamponade occur?

When intrapericardial pressure exceeds the normal right ventricular diastolic pressure.

8

Describe the pathway from intrapericardial pressure to cardiogenic shock and death...

1. Increased pericardial pressure

2. Impedes RV and RA filling

3. Impedes LV and LA filing

4. Decreased CO

5. Decreased BP

6. Poor organ perfusion

7. Activation of the NH system

8. Fluid retention/vasoconstriction

9. Cardiogenic shock/death

9

Circulating concentrations of cTnl > ____ ng/mL are suggestive of cardiac hemangiosarcoma.

25

10

True or False: You can differentiate hemorrhagic neoplastic effusion from benign idiopathic effusion by cytology alone.

FALSE

11

What is the most common type of pericardial effusion in dogs?

Hemorrhagic pericardial effusion

12

What is the most common cause of hemorrhagic effusion in the dog?

Cardiac hemangiosarcoma

13

What is the second-most common cause of hemorrhagic effusion in the dog?

Benign idiopathic

14

In which 4 dog breeds is cardiac hemangiosarcoma of higher prevalence?

1. Golden retrievers

2. Lab retrievers

3. German shepherds

4. Cocker spaniels

15

In which heart structures is hemangiosarcoma most typically found?

Right heart (right auricle and right atrium, sometimes the right ventricle)

16

True or False: Heart base tumors can be more common than hemangiosarcomas.

FALSE - much less common than HSA.

17

Which tumor of the heart base is most common?

Chemodectoma

18

What is a chemodectoma?

Aortic body tumor

19

In which dog breeds are tumors of the heart base most common?

Brachycephalic breeds

20

What is the most common cause of a transudative pericardial effusion?

CHF

21

What are 3 other causes of transudative pericardial effusion?

1. Hypoalbuminemia

2. PPDH

3. HCM in cats

22

What are the cellularity and protein content of a transudative effusion?

1. Low cellularity

2. Protein 2.5-5 g/dL

23

Describe the protein content and appearance of an exudative pericardial effusion.

1. Highly cellular

2. Cloudy to opaque

24

What are 3 causes of an exudative pericardial effusion?

1. Bacterial infection

2. Fungal infection

3. FIP in cats

25

For pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade, what therapy is indicated FIRST?

Pericardiocentesis

26

For pericardial effusion not causing cardiac tamponade (CHF, hypoalbuminemia, etc.), what therapy is indicated?

Treat underlying cause

27

Compare pericardial effusion from circulating blood.

Pericardial effusion = lower PCR (7%) and xanthochromic serum

Peripheral blood = higher PCV and clear serum

28

What are 3 changes you might observe via ECG after performing pericardiocentesis?

1. Decreased HR

2. Return to sinus arrhythmia

3. Increased amplitude of waveforms