Flashcards in Pericardial Disease Deck (28):
In which is pericardial effusion more common, dogs or cats?
What is the most common congenital problem with the pericardium?
PPDH = peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia
What is a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia?
An abnormal communication between the peritoneum and pericardium at ventral midline
Does a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia involve the pleural space in any way?
True or False: A peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is caused by trauma.
FALSE - but trauma can facilitate movement of abdominal organs through the defect.
Which is more common, congential pericardial disease or acquired pericardial disease?
Acquired pericardial disease
When does cardiac tamponade occur?
When intrapericardial pressure exceeds the normal right ventricular diastolic pressure.
Describe the pathway from intrapericardial pressure to cardiogenic shock and death...
1. Increased pericardial pressure
2. Impedes RV and RA filling
3. Impedes LV and LA filing
4. Decreased CO
5. Decreased BP
6. Poor organ perfusion
7. Activation of the NH system
8. Fluid retention/vasoconstriction
9. Cardiogenic shock/death
Circulating concentrations of cTnl > ____ ng/mL are suggestive of cardiac hemangiosarcoma.
True or False: You can differentiate hemorrhagic neoplastic effusion from benign idiopathic effusion by cytology alone.
What is the most common type of pericardial effusion in dogs?
Hemorrhagic pericardial effusion
What is the most common cause of hemorrhagic effusion in the dog?
What is the second-most common cause of hemorrhagic effusion in the dog?
In which 4 dog breeds is cardiac hemangiosarcoma of higher prevalence?
1. Golden retrievers
2. Lab retrievers
3. German shepherds
4. Cocker spaniels
In which heart structures is hemangiosarcoma most typically found?
Right heart (right auricle and right atrium, sometimes the right ventricle)
True or False: Heart base tumors can be more common than hemangiosarcomas.
FALSE - much less common than HSA.
Which tumor of the heart base is most common?
What is a chemodectoma?
Aortic body tumor
In which dog breeds are tumors of the heart base most common?
What is the most common cause of a transudative pericardial effusion?
What are 3 other causes of transudative pericardial effusion?
3. HCM in cats
What are the cellularity and protein content of a transudative effusion?
1. Low cellularity
2. Protein 2.5-5 g/dL
Describe the protein content and appearance of an exudative pericardial effusion.
1. Highly cellular
2. Cloudy to opaque
What are 3 causes of an exudative pericardial effusion?
1. Bacterial infection
2. Fungal infection
3. FIP in cats
For pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade, what therapy is indicated FIRST?
For pericardial effusion not causing cardiac tamponade (CHF, hypoalbuminemia, etc.), what therapy is indicated?
Treat underlying cause
Compare pericardial effusion from circulating blood.
Pericardial effusion = lower PCR (7%) and xanthochromic serum
Peripheral blood = higher PCV and clear serum