Period One (1491-1607) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Period One (1491-1607) Deck (27):
1

Pueblo

A native tribe in present-day Colorado who made irrigation systems for their cornfields and adopted cliff-dweller architecture

2

Navajo

A tribe in Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico who grew corn, agricultural prowess enabled trade with other tribes

3

Sioux

A general term for many small, dispersed hunter-gatherer groups who lived on the Great Plains and followed the bison to hunt them

4

Apache

A Southwestern tribe with a nomadic lifestyle

5

Iroquois League

A Northeastern league of five nations with significant political and military power, made of a matriarchial society with matrilineal inheritance

6

Algonquian

A Northeastern tribe who performed slash-and-burn agriculture and subscripted to traditional gender roles (women cultivated, men hunted)

7

Cohokia

A tribe near the Mississippi that existed in small autonomous clans that maintained permanent settlements near rivers

8

Chinook

A Northwestern tribe along the banks of the Columbia River who made use of the ocean's resources as well

9

Name the three alliterative sources of inspiration for explorers

Gold, God, Glory

10

Treaty of Tordesillas

An allocation of New World land between Spain and Portugal: Spain claimed almost all of the Americas, while Portugal claimed Brazil and West Africa

11

Mercantilism

The economic system where the nation with the most raw materials and precious metals was the best

12

Number one economic benefit of exploration

The possible discovery of a trade route across the Atlantic leading to the spice-trading Asians

13

Some benefits of the Columbian Exchange

New World crops gave Europeans a more healthful diet. Europe could transition to capitalism with new sources of material wealth. Domesticated animals (namely horses) were brought to the New World. Rice, sugar cane, and other plantations cropped up around the New World.

14

Some harms of the Columbian Exchange

A horrific slew of diseases ravaged the native population due to their lack of immunity. The rise of large plantations created a need for forced native labor, and eventually African slave labor.

15

Benefits of horses in the New World

Nomadic bison-hunting tribes had a significant advantage by hunting and fighting with horses.

16

Conquistadores

Independent adventurers and daredevils contracted by the Spanish crown to find economic opportunities

17

Cortes and the Aztecs

Cortes took down the Aztec Empire, the most sophisticated and powerful empire in the New World, with the help of smallpox and superior technology, giving way to a Eurocentric mindset that "Europeans could do anything to anyone".

18

First permanent European settlement

St. Augustine (Northeastern Florida), established by the Spanish in 1565

19

The hierarchy in Spanish society

Peninsulares: pure-blooded Spanish Iberians (born on the Iberian Peninsula)
Creoles: pure-blooded Spanish born in the Americas
Mestizo: mixed-race people between natives and Whites
Mulatto: mixed-race people between natives and slaves
Native population
Slaves

20

Sources of Eurocentric mindset

In general, Europeans in the New World believed that:
Natives were uncivilized and subhuman.
Polytheism was inferior to Catholicism.
Natives' land use was inefficient.
Natives were less due to skin color.
Slaves were seen as property, not people.

21

Triangular trade

1. European goods traded to African contractors for slaves.
2. Slaves carried by merchant ships to America.
3. Goods from slave labor traded to Europe for manufactured goods.

22

African identity in the New World

Caribbean slaves created Vodun, a syncretic (blended) religion with African rituals and Christian beliefs.
Also, maroon societies (groups of runaway slaves) attempted to retain African culture and stay independent of colonial or European governments.

23

Bartolome de las Casas

A Dominican friar who advocated for the humane treatment of natives

24

Encomienda system

A forced-labor system that conscripted natives to work on plantations, but overtaken by slave system

25

Characteristics of religious conversion in New World

Friars often degraded native culture to undermine it.
Spanish created autocratic, rigid empire to impose European views on the natives.
Overall, conversion was forced.

26

Name several conflicts between European and native culture.

Gender views: matrilineal tribes, reverence of women vs European tradition of male superiority and patriarchy
Nature: tribes revered nature, Europeans exploited it
Property: natives collectively owned land, Europeans held to private property
Religion: natives mostly polytheistic, Europeans strongly Christian

27

Name some technological developments that made exploration easier.

Sextant: a navigational instrument that could measure altitudes and angles between objects.
Caravel: a lighter, smaller ship with a lateen sail and steerable rudder
Astrolabe: a mechanical calculator used for stellar and nautical math