Period Two (1607-1754) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Period Two (1607-1754) Deck (46):
1

Encomienda system

A forced labor system that subjugated the native populations for them to work on a colonist-owned plantation and led to closer interactions (not necessarily positive) between natives and Spanish.

2

Cortez

A prominent conquistador who defeated the Aztec empire through transmitted pathogens and his small band of soldiers.

3

Mission system

A harsh yet less violent attempt to convert and Westernize the natives, avoiding slaughter while still rejecting native culture wholly.

4

New Netherlands

A melting-pot society founded by and for Dutch fur trappers, acted as an economic hub for the fur trade (this relied on healthy relationships with natives)

5

Samuel de Champlain

The first successful French explorer, tried to ally with natives for economic and territorial gain, set stage for permanent French settlements

6

Jamestown

An English colony founded as a safe haven for Puritan families and couples fleeing religious persecution

7

Starving time

A harsh winter for the Jamestown colony that led to massive die-off as crops failed and food stores ran out

8

Tobacco

A crucial cash crop that thrived in the Virginian climate, motivated many migrants to seek a wealthier life in America

9

Chesapeake colony

A colony that had a high proportion of indentured servants, whose passage was paid for by colonists in exchange for plenty of land

10

Middle Passage

A trade route for ships carrying African slaves, helped colonies eventually substitute indentured servants for slave labor

11

Bacon's Rebellion

An uprising of indentured servants and dissatisfied Whites against Virginia's Gov. Berkeley that undermined the indentured servitude institution

12

Salem Witch Trials

In Salem, Mass., a short period of religious zeal and widespread paranoia where people used accusations of witchcraft to strike back at others

13

Subsistence farming

A farming practice where each farm produced enough to feed its family and did not produce for surplus, sale, or export

14

Anne Hutchinson

A religious rebel who ran her own Protestant sect, despite opposition toward her different views and gender; also highlights the irony in Puritans being discriminatory

15

Harvard College

A very old college founded to educate Puritan clergy, shows the extent of Puritan appreciation for education

16

Quakers

A religious group who encouraged religious toleration and rejected Christian sacraments

17

Breadbasket colonies

A term for the middle colonies, as they were productive in producing cereal crops

18

William Penn

Founder of Pennsylvania, a colony with many religious and racial minorities (even White minorities)

19

Rice

A labor-intensive crop that grew well in the tropic-like south, requiring many slaves for each plantation

20

Mayflower Compact

A relatively democratic constitution based on a social contract for the Mayflower passengers

21

House of Burgesses

The first legislative assembly in N. America, established by the Virginia Company; elected through town meetings, creating a representative government

22

Massachusetts General Court

An appeals court run by the colonial assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colony

23

Triangular trade

European manufactured goods to African slavers. African slaves to American colonies. American crops and materials to Europe. Europe makes finished products. Repeat.

24

Praying towns

Puritan towns developed to Westernize and Christianize native populations, creating heavy and often unwelcome cultural influences on natives

25

Beaver Wars

A war between the Dutch-backed Iroquois and a French-backed coalition of tribes; a proxy war representing tensions among Europeans

26

Navigation Acts

A series of poorly-enforced mercantilist measures that restricted colonial trade and angered colonial merchants

27

Pequot War

A conflict between English colonists and English-backed natives against Pequot tribe, stemming from Pequot anger over British intrusion into fur trade

28

King Philip's War

A war between Plymouth colonists and Wampanoag chief Metacom (son of Massasoit) representing a broken friendship

29

Mestizo

A person with both native and Spanish ancestry, mestizo culture was mix between native and Spanish cultures

30

Pueblo Revolt

A successful uprising against Spanish by the Pueblo that essentially drove Spanish out of New Mexico and led to Spanish being more accepting of native culture out of fear

31

Enlightenment

An intellectual movement emphasizing reason and individualism, leading to many new political schools of thought

32

Great Awakening

A Christian evangelical movement in reaction to the Enlightenment that emphasized an emotional experience with God, opened new schisms between Christian sects

33

Old Lights and New Lights

Old Lights: traditional Christian thought
New Lights: evangelical Christian thought

34

George Whitefield

Founder of Methodism, an evangelical preacher with a large following, inspired many other movements too

35

Anglicization

The process of making the colonies more English, in terms of politics and society

36

Republicanism

A political system where a democratically elected body of officials decided public policy (English roots)

37

Salutary neglect

The act of deregulating the colonies and allowing them to be independent, creating an autonomous mentality in the colonies

38

John Zenger

A printer whose criticism of Governor Cosby was successfully defended in court, set precedent for freedom of press

39

Mercantilism

An economic system where the country with the most resources and fewest exports performed the best.
Britain believed in this system strongly.

40

Dominion of New England

A political union with constitutional monarchy that introduced Anglican thought to colonies; colonists overthrew this system quickly

41

John Locke

A European Enlightenment philosopher who outlined the social contract (consent of the governed is imperative) and the concept of natural rights

42

Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England, was Anglican and acted like a monarch; overthrown after a few years

43

Plantation agriculture

An economic system relying on large cash crop farms to generate revenue, required a large slave population

44

Stono Rebellion

A slave revolt instigated by Spanish promises for freedom, led to stricter slave laws and fewer freed slaves

45

Barbados Slave Code

Established slavery as a chattel institution, gave the slave owners significant rights over the slaves (who had next-to-no rights)

46

Work slowdowns

One of many ways for slaves to rebel covertly against their masters, effectively sabotaging their money supply by working slowly