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Flashcards in Periodic Table Deck (23):
1

Factors affection ionisation energy

Nuclear charge
Atomic radius
Shielding

2

First ionisation energy

The energy needed to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms

3

What happens as you move across periods

The ionisation energies are increased as there are more protons so pull towards the nucleus reducing the atomic radius

4

What happens as you descend the group

Ionisation energy decreases due to extra shells

5

Allotrope

Different forms of the same element in same state
Eg carbon- diamond graphite graphene

6

Metallic bonding

Metal cations electrostatically attracted to the delocalised negative electron. From lattice closely packed cations in sea of delocalised electrons

7

Simple molecular structure

Contain on a few atoms
Have covalent bonds between atoms
Strength of induced dipole dipole between molecules = how strong

8

Group 2 metals and water

From metal hydroxide and hydrogen

9

Group 2 and acid

Metal chloride and hydrogen

10

Sulfate Test

Add dilute HCl followed by BaCl2, if white ppt formed then sulfate

11

Why does ionisation energy drop between group 2 and 3

As group 3 is in p orbital rather than which has a higher energy
Shielding of S orbital

12

Exception between group 5 and 6

Group 5 electron is being removed from a singly occupied orbital while group 6 is from orbital containing 2 electrons
Repulsion between 2 electrons in orbital makes it easier to remove electron

13

Successive ionisation energy

Increase within each shell because electrons being removed from increasingly positive ion and less repulsion from remaining electrons

14

Diamond

Each carbon atom bonded to to 4 other
High melting point
Extremely hard
Thermal conductor
Doesn’t dissolve
Doesn’t conduct electricity

15

Graphite

Weak forces between layers so can slide past each other
Delocalised electrons to carry current
Layers far apart so less dense than diamond, used in sports equipment
High melting point
Insoluble

16

Graphene

Delocalised electrons to carry electric current and also strengthen covalent bonds between atoms
Transparent and light

17

Metallic bonding

Outermost electrons are delocalised leaving a metal cation, metal cations are electrostatically attracted to delocalised electrons forming a lattice of packed cations in sea of delocalised electrons

18

Metallic bonding properties

number of delecalised electrons per atom affects the melting point
No bonds holding specific ions so is malleable and ductile
Delocalised electrons can pass KE

19

Simple molecular structure

Contain only a few atoms
Low melting and boiling points due to weak induced dipole forces
Noble gases exist as one atom so very low

20

Silver nitrate and chlorine

White ppt
Dissolves jn dilute NH3

21

Silver nitrate and Br-

Cream ppt
Dissolves in conc NH3

22

Silver nitrate and I-

Yellow ppt
Insoluble in conc NH3

23

Halogen disproportionation

Simultaneously oxidised and reduced when reacted with cold dilute alkali solutions