periodontal disease and immunology (complete) Flashcards Preview

DMD 5244 (Immunity) > periodontal disease and immunology (complete) > Flashcards

Flashcards in periodontal disease and immunology (complete) Deck (44):
1

what are the components of the periodontium

gingiva
gingival attachement
cementum
periodontal ligament
alveolar bone

2

which parts of the periodontium are tooth supporting structures

cementum
periodontal ligament
alveolar bone

3

what are the cells surrounding the periodontal ligament

connective tissue cells
epithelial rest cells
immune system cells (Neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils)

4

what is periodontal disease

a broad group of pathological alterations to the periodontal tissue

5

what is the only etiology of periodontal disease

bacterial plaque

6

what is bacterial plaque

the colonization of subgingival regions by specific groups of organisms (bacterial mass)

7

where does bacterial plaque attach

tooth surface above and below the gingival margin

8

what are the direct effects of bacterial plaque on the periodontium

invasion
release of exotoxins
cell constituents
enzymes (proteases)

9

what are the indirect effects of bacterial plaque on the periodontium

immunological and other host responses (often destructive)
loss of periodontal tissue

10

what are the two types of periodontitis

chronic and aggressive

11

what is periodontitis

an inflammation based infection to the supporting structures of the teeth

12

what effect do systemic diseases have on periodontitis

they modify it

13

which type of periodontitis is most common in adults

chronic

14

is the severity of chronic periodontitis consistent with the plaque and calculus formation

yes

15

what happens to the tissues in chronic periodontitis

they may be red or purplish
you may lose attachment and bone

16

how quickly does chronic periodontitis progress

slowly or moderately

17

is the severity of aggressive periodontitis consistent with the plaque and calculus

nope

18

how fast is the destruction of tissue progression in aggressive periodontitis

rapid

19

are there genetic factors involved in aggressive periodontitis

yes

20

what bacteria is most commonly associated with aggressive periodontitis

actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

21

what is the activity of PMNs and macrophages like in aggressive periodontitis

abnormal PMN function and hyperresponsive macrophages

22

what are the two kinds of aggressive periodontitis

Localized (LAP)
generalized (GAP)

23

which type of aggressive periodontitis has a strong Ab response, which type has a poor Ab response

localized has a strong Ab response
generalized has a weak Ab response

24

what are the characteristics of localized aggressive periodontitis

1. early onset
2. associated with actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
3. abnormal neutrophil function
4. destroys around 1st molars and incisors
5. AKA juvenile periodontitis

25

what are the characteristics of generalized aggressive periodontitis

1. rapid attachment and bone loss
2. no obvious symptoms of systemic disease
3. destruction isn't proportional to plaque
4. genetic factor
5. specific bacteria
6. early onset

26

are all bacterial plaque equally pathogenic

nope

27

what are the bacteria associated with periodontitis

Porphyromonas gingivalis
Prevotella intermedia
Bacteroides forsythus
Campylobacter rectus

28

what bacteria is associated with aggressive periodontitis

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa)

29

what are the virulence traits of periodontal pathogens,

proteases
hemagglutinins
LPS
Fimbriae
Polysaccharide capsule

30

what do proteases do for periodontal pathogens

degrade host proteins

31

what do hemagglutinins do for periodontal pathogens

they are responsible for bacterial binding to the host cell receptors

32

what does LPS do for periodontal pathogens

slightly endotoxic

33

what does Fimbriae do for periodontal pathogens

helps in adherence, colonization, and periodontal destruction

34

what does the polysaccharide capsule do for periodontal pathogens

inhibit phagocytosis and MAC medaited cytolysis

35

how does P. gingivalis induce inflammation and bleeding and why

hemagglutinins and proteases lyse RBCs and extract the nutrients for rapid growth

36

what do the proteases of periodontal pathogens lyse

RBCs
serum Abs
complement proteins
cytokines

37

what is responsible for bone resorption

PGE2

38

how do you combat PGE2 and bone resorption

NSAIDs and dexamethasone

39

early periodontal lesions are characterized by

T-cells and macrophages

40

established and advanced periodontal lesions are characterized by

B cells and plasma cells

41

what controls the progression from T-cells and macrophage in early periodontal lesions to B-cells and plasma cells in advanced periodontal lesions

host Th-derived cytokines

42

early clinical gingival lesions correlate with which type of immune response and which cytokines

TH1 type response
with IL-12 and IFN-y
protective immunity

43

established gingival lesions correlate with which type of immune response and which cytokines

TH2 response
IL-4, IL-10, IL-13
chronic periodontitis

44

what type of immune response leads to aggressive periodontitis

TH-1 dependent Ab type
high IgG2