Flashcards in Personal Rule Deck (25):
What is the evidence that it is personal rule?
Temporarily dissolved, Charles was not breaking any laws, Thorough was about efficiency, Laud was not a Catholic and cruel punishments were common at the time.
What is the evidence that it is eleven years of tyranny?
Dissolution of Parliament seemed permanent, raised money without Parliament, absolutism through prerogative courts, Lauds reforms and censored the press
Who were Charles's key advisors?
William Laud - Archbishop. Thomas Wentworth - Earl of Strafford.
What were the issues with Charles's privy council?
His inner circle were mainly Catholics - fear of Catholicism. Privy council was formed from his supporters who would agree with him.
What was the policy of Thorough?
Imposed strict standards to make government more efficientt. Imposed by Wentworth and Laud.
What was the Book of Orders (1631) ?
Instructions to JPs: collection of poor law rates, treatment of beggars and law enforcement. There was a penalty for non compliance.
What did Charles use to enforce his laws?
Star Chamber - Privy council members, could hold cases in secret. The Court of High Commission - for religious uniformity. Regional Councils - eg Council of the North - enforced royal policy.
Why did Charles have no money?
Because there was no Parliament.
What were quick fixes to raise money?
Customs Duty - Book of Rates revalued (1635). Distraint of Knighthood - expense of goodwill.. Forest Laws. Monopolies. Wardship - run estates.
How did Charles cut costs?
Reformed his household to reduce expenditure. Purveyance - purchasing the same goods for less.
What were long term solutions for raising moey?
Trade - improved due to peace. Tonnage and Poundage - tax on imports. Ship Money - tax on coastal towns for the navy.
Why was Ship Mony successful?
It raised lots of money, equivalent to 3 Parliamentary subsidies, most people paid. Financially it was success.
Why was Ship Money unsuccessful?
Caused opposition and didn't have Parliaments approval. The Hampden Case (1637) - Refused to pay ship money and was taken to court, Charles won but only by a minority, hard to collect afterwards.
What was Laudianism?
Reforms brought in by Laud for uniformity. Beauty of Holiness - decoration. Increased status of ministers. Emphasis on ritual and ceremony. The altar policy - moved the communion table.
Why was Laudianism an issue?
It seemed as if Laud was moving back towards Catholicism by implementing High Church. Seen as absolutist.
What was the Book of Sports (1633) and what was the impact?
Introduced sports you could do on Sundays. Caused opposition as for Puritan Sundays were for God.
What did repressed Puritans do?
Published Pamphlets - Prynne, Bastwick and Burton (cut ears off). Many Puritans emigrated to American colonies.
Who was Thomas Wentworth?
Originally an MP and opposed Buckingham. Became President of the Council of the North (1628).
What were Wentworth's aims in Ireland?
1. Impose authority of English Crown.
2. Religious Uniformity in Irish Church.
3.. Make Ireland profitable.
What methods did Wentworth use in Ireland?
Impose authority in Irish council - isolate political elites. Anglican 39 Articles introduced (1634) - isolated protestant Irish, Scottish Presbyterian settlers and the Catholics. Book of Rates. Built and Irish army. Divide and rule.
What was the impact of Wentworth in Ireland?
Caused tension due to absolutist control and harsh methods. All factions negatively impacted. Left a power vacuum when recalled.
Why was the Scottish Covenant introduced?
Charles tried to introduce the English Prayer Book and wouldn't back down. Scottish nobility signed the Covenant (1638) and many civilians.
What occurred during the First Bishops War?
Both sides raised an army. English - war unpopular and no money. Scotland - lots of support. Ended in the Pacification of Berwick (1639) - disband armies.
What were the events of the Second Bishops War?
Neither side backed down. Renewed war. Covenanter took Newcastle and Charles lost. Had to sign the Treaty of Ripon.