Personality Disorders (Exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Personality Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (60):
1

What is the definition of personality?

a set of traits

2

What is personality theoretically determined by?

notion of "personality" may be rooted in psychodynamic tradition

3

What is the definition of traits?

enduring patterns of:
-perceiving environment
-relating to environment and oneself
-thinking about environment and oneself

4

What are the role of traits?

-traits are stable over time
-traits are stable across situations

5

What is the problem with the trait theory?

traits are not typically consistent over time or situations

6

What does Bem & Allen (1974) say about the trait theory of personality?

people differ in their consistency for traits

7

What does Synder (1974) say about the trait theory of personality?

self-monitoring

8

What does Synder say about high self-monitors?

adapt to the current situation

9

What does Synder say about low self-monitors?

have consistent traits

10

What is the state vs. trait argument?

person-situation debate

11

What is Karen Horney's model of neurosis?

-moving toward people
-moving against people
-moving away from people

12

What does Horney say about moving toward people?

need for affection and approval

13

What does Horney say about moving against people?

-need to restrict life practices
-need for power/to exploit others
-need for social recognition or personal administration

14

What does Horney say about moving away from people?

-need for self sufficiency and independence
-need for perfection

15

What is the disordered personality and behavioral model?

set of (frequently) ineffective behaviors and transmutational consistency

16

What is transmutational consistency?

-relatively consistent patterns of behavior
-particular to each individual
-subject to change with time and situation

17

What are the issues of functional behaviors?

may not be adaptive or functional in long-term

18

What are the challenges of the age of onset of personality disorders?

-difficult to pinpoint
-people begin to form their personalities from birth

19

When do stable patterns of personality tend to form?

-late childhood
-early adolescence
-young adulthood

20

What is the diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder?

enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations

21

Is personality disorder a diagnosis by itself?

no

22

Does personality disorder lead to clinically significant distress or impairment?

yes

23

Does the pattern have to be stable and of long duration and can it be traced back to adolescence or early adulthood?

yes

24

Is diagnostic reliability of a PD a problem?

yes

25

How does the social stigma or labelling effect the diagnosis of PD?

-pejorative terms
-can impact how others interact with client
-refer to personality diagnostic criteria or diagnosis when don't like person

26

What type of prognosis is implied when diagnosing a PD?

-poor prognosis
-implications are that PD is unchangeable
-some clinicians give up on helping a person change

27

Where does it imply the locus of control is?

implies internal locus of control (problems resides within client)

28

What are the classifications of PDs?

-cluster system
-cluster A
-cluster B
-cluster C

29

What is in the Cluster A classification?

odd or eccentric behavior
-paranoid PD
-schizoid PD
-schizotypal PD

30

What is in the Cluster B classification?

dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors
-borderline PD
-histrionic PD
-narcissistic PD
-antisocial PD

31

What is in the Cluster C classification?

anxious or fearful characteristics
-avoidant PD
-dependent PD
-obsessive compulsive PD

32

What is the main behavior seen for Paranoid PD?

-pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others
-others' motives are interpreted as malevolent

33

What is the differential diagnosis for Paranoid PD?

-schizophrenia, paranoid type (no delusions or hallucinations)

34

What is the main behavior seen for Schizoid PD?

pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions

35

What is the differential diagnosis for Schizoid PD?

-schizophrenia (prodromal phase)
-avoidant PD
-social phobia

36

What are the main behaviors seen for Schizotypal PD?

pervasive patterns of social and interpersonal deficits

37

What is the differential diagnosis for Schizotypal PD?

Schizophrenia (prodromal stage)

38

Does cluster A predict schizophrenia?

research does not support as etiologic theory

39

What does the research say about Cluster A predicting schizophrenia?

does not support etiologic theory
-poor prognosis for person diagnosed with schizophrenia is predicted by premorbid personality disorder

40

What are the main behaviors seen with Borderline PD?

pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affect, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts

41

What are suicidal feelings for borderline PD?

-great deal of pain
-often dealing with overwhelming histories
-genuine attempts/completions

42

What are parasuicidal behaviors for borderline PD?

-not a suicide attempt
-self mutilation

43

What is the BPD treatment?

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) by Linehan

44

What does the DBT research show?

-decreased hospitalization rates
-decreased self injury and suicidal behaviors
-cost savings: $10,000 per patient/per year
-not evidence that well being improves

45

What are the main behaviors seen with Histrionic PD?

pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking

46

What is the main behaviors seen with Narcissistic PD?

pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

47

What do people with narcissistic PD need for others to tell them?

need others to tell them that they are important but will deny that they need anyone

48

What is the difference between diagnosis rates of males and females for Antisocial PD?

3% males
1% females

49

What is the age of onset for Antisocial PD?

before age 15

50

What is the main behaviors seen with Antisocial PD?

pervasive pattern disregard for and violation of the rights of others (since age 15)

51

Is there evidence of Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15 years?

yes

52

What is the relationship between antisocial PD and sociopathy?

sociopath has a sense of morality while antisocial PD doesn't

53

What is the relationship between antisocial PD and psychopathy?

both lack remorse/empathy

54

What is the controversy of Antisocial PD?

complaint that definition of ASPD related too much to illegal behavior

55

What are the main behaviors seen with Avoidant PD?

pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation

56

What is the differential diagnosis from Social Phobia and Avoidant PD?

social phobia people have good relationships while avoidant PD are afraid of relationships

57

What are the main behaviors seen with Dependent PD?

excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation

58

What is the differential diagnosis from Borderline PD and Dependent PD?

-fear of abandonment seen in both

-Borderline PD more aggressive and Dependent PD is more passive

59

What is the difference between Obsessive Compulsive PD and OCD?

Obsessive Compulsive PD is more "anal retentive"

60

What are the main behaviors seen with Obsessive Compulsive PD?

preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency