Flashcards in Personality Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (60):
What is the definition of personality?
a set of traits
What is personality theoretically determined by?
notion of "personality" may be rooted in psychodynamic tradition
What is the definition of traits?
enduring patterns of:
-relating to environment and oneself
-thinking about environment and oneself
What are the role of traits?
-traits are stable over time
-traits are stable across situations
What is the problem with the trait theory?
traits are not typically consistent over time or situations
What does Bem & Allen (1974) say about the trait theory of personality?
people differ in their consistency for traits
What does Synder (1974) say about the trait theory of personality?
What does Synder say about high self-monitors?
adapt to the current situation
What does Synder say about low self-monitors?
have consistent traits
What is the state vs. trait argument?
What is Karen Horney's model of neurosis?
-moving toward people
-moving against people
-moving away from people
What does Horney say about moving toward people?
need for affection and approval
What does Horney say about moving against people?
-need to restrict life practices
-need for power/to exploit others
-need for social recognition or personal administration
What does Horney say about moving away from people?
-need for self sufficiency and independence
-need for perfection
What is the disordered personality and behavioral model?
set of (frequently) ineffective behaviors and transmutational consistency
What is transmutational consistency?
-relatively consistent patterns of behavior
-particular to each individual
-subject to change with time and situation
What are the issues of functional behaviors?
may not be adaptive or functional in long-term
What are the challenges of the age of onset of personality disorders?
-difficult to pinpoint
-people begin to form their personalities from birth
When do stable patterns of personality tend to form?
What is the diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder?
enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations
Is personality disorder a diagnosis by itself?
Does personality disorder lead to clinically significant distress or impairment?
Does the pattern have to be stable and of long duration and can it be traced back to adolescence or early adulthood?
Is diagnostic reliability of a PD a problem?
How does the social stigma or labelling effect the diagnosis of PD?
-can impact how others interact with client
-refer to personality diagnostic criteria or diagnosis when don't like person
What type of prognosis is implied when diagnosing a PD?
-implications are that PD is unchangeable
-some clinicians give up on helping a person change
Where does it imply the locus of control is?
implies internal locus of control (problems resides within client)
What are the classifications of PDs?
What is in the Cluster A classification?
odd or eccentric behavior
What is in the Cluster B classification?
dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors
What is in the Cluster C classification?
anxious or fearful characteristics
-obsessive compulsive PD
What is the main behavior seen for Paranoid PD?
-pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others
-others' motives are interpreted as malevolent
What is the differential diagnosis for Paranoid PD?
-schizophrenia, paranoid type (no delusions or hallucinations)
What is the main behavior seen for Schizoid PD?
pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions
What is the differential diagnosis for Schizoid PD?
-schizophrenia (prodromal phase)
What are the main behaviors seen for Schizotypal PD?
pervasive patterns of social and interpersonal deficits
What is the differential diagnosis for Schizotypal PD?
Schizophrenia (prodromal stage)
Does cluster A predict schizophrenia?
research does not support as etiologic theory
What does the research say about Cluster A predicting schizophrenia?
does not support etiologic theory
-poor prognosis for person diagnosed with schizophrenia is predicted by premorbid personality disorder
What are the main behaviors seen with Borderline PD?
pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affect, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts
What are suicidal feelings for borderline PD?
-great deal of pain
-often dealing with overwhelming histories
What are parasuicidal behaviors for borderline PD?
-not a suicide attempt
What is the BPD treatment?
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) by Linehan
What does the DBT research show?
-decreased hospitalization rates
-decreased self injury and suicidal behaviors
-cost savings: $10,000 per patient/per year
-not evidence that well being improves
What are the main behaviors seen with Histrionic PD?
pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
What is the main behaviors seen with Narcissistic PD?
pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
What do people with narcissistic PD need for others to tell them?
need others to tell them that they are important but will deny that they need anyone
What is the difference between diagnosis rates of males and females for Antisocial PD?
What is the age of onset for Antisocial PD?
before age 15
What is the main behaviors seen with Antisocial PD?
pervasive pattern disregard for and violation of the rights of others (since age 15)
Is there evidence of Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15 years?
What is the relationship between antisocial PD and sociopathy?
sociopath has a sense of morality while antisocial PD doesn't
What is the relationship between antisocial PD and psychopathy?
both lack remorse/empathy
What is the controversy of Antisocial PD?
complaint that definition of ASPD related too much to illegal behavior
What are the main behaviors seen with Avoidant PD?
pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
What is the differential diagnosis from Social Phobia and Avoidant PD?
social phobia people have good relationships while avoidant PD are afraid of relationships
What are the main behaviors seen with Dependent PD?
excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
What is the differential diagnosis from Borderline PD and Dependent PD?
-fear of abandonment seen in both
-Borderline PD more aggressive and Dependent PD is more passive
What is the difference between Obsessive Compulsive PD and OCD?
Obsessive Compulsive PD is more "anal retentive"